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Condition known as hypoxemia with this the

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condition known as Hypoxemia. With this, the chemoreceptors in the area triggers,causing an increase in respiratory drive to compensate the lack of oxygen in the blood.Causing the lung to inhale more from its usual or Tachypnea. Also with the fluidaccumulation in the lung parenchyma, the receptors of the respiratory detects and istrying to expel this fluid through coughing. The cough can expectorate much of the fluidthat is in the alveoli, all the blood components, the proteins, and sputum in the process ofthe productive coughing. Also, the fluid accumulation can manifest in other ways such aswith pulmonary crackles and percussion on the area causing a sound known as resonant.All of this accumulation of fluids in the alveoli can be visualized in the chest x-ray. Asfluids build up does not allow x-rays to pass through the area presenting in a white opaqueor hazy fields on the plain film of the x-ray.
On the other hand, in its immunologic function, there is a decrease of the levels ofWBC as bone marrows are affected. Excess toxins, as with uremic toxins, accumulating inthe blood stream are harmful to all organs, and inhibit the marrow’s ability to produce cells.With uremia, it is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections, likely owing toleukocyte suppression by uremic toxins.Inthecardiovascularsystem,theincreasedofperipheralresistanceisamechanism of the body to increase blood flow towards the affected organs. Peripherally,this causes to decrease the ability of the tissues to perfuse. It can manifest in testing thenailbed of the person with a nail blanch test, as it shows a decrease of the capillary refill ofthe area. The body also compensates through the production of Renin, a significantcomponentoftheRAAS.ActivationoftheRAASeventuallyleadsto2significantprocesses: the increase of cardiac output and increased peripheral resistance. The RAASis initiated and stimulated. Renin will be converted to Angiotensin I, then Angiotensin Iwould be converted to Angiotensin II through ACE and would facilitate vasoconstrictionwhich would further help in increasing the BP. On the other hand, aldosterone wouldfacilitate the active transport of sodium and it is said that where sodium is, water will follow,so there would be more water retention and there would be further increase of BP. As withthe increase of phosphate in the body, the parathyroid gland as part of the endocrinesystem tries to compensate by releasing its own hormones. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)causes the bones to release calcium. Chronically, when calcium levels are higher thannormal, it leads to a condition known as primary hyperparathyroidism.Furthermore, hyperphosphatemia contributes to the development of hypocalcemia.The increase inlevelsof phosphate promotessoft-tissue calcification, inwhichanabnormal deposition of calcium phosphate occurs in solid organs such as the bones andmuscles. This causes an imbalance of the minerals in the blood that contributes to the

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Chronic kidney disease, CKD

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