2260 2223 grandson of sargon greater empire than

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Naram-Sin (r. 2260-2223): grandson of Sargon Greater empire than Sargon “king of the 4-quarters of the earth” Naram-Sin named himself The title is impt. It will be retained by near eastern kings, all the way down the Persian empire. ; Persian kings still call themselves this Lasts until a new wave of invaders comes from the east: Third Dynasty of Ur Third Dynasty of Ur (2112-2004) Lasts not quite a century Falls to invaders from the desert: Amerites(spoke a language from the Semitic family) Sumerian itself becomes a dead language, but it doesn’t disappear, it remains a “learned” language retains as literary tongue by the Mesp. priets Old Babylonian period (2003-1595) Remain the most impt. City in the region for the rest of antiquity The region, kingdom, and civilization is called Babylonia Most accomplished Babylonian King: Hammurabi (r. ca. 1792-1750)
Under him, Mes. Achieves remarkable things in civilization: lit, math, astro, increased the size of his empire w/ agreesive military campaigning, grew his organization His greatest achievement: Code of Hammurabi Discovered in 1901, it’s currently in the Lu Marriage relations, inheritance, violent crime, interest rates, trade, etc Most impt features: draws distinction between 3 social classes: nobles, commoners, and the slaves Individuals receive protection of the law according to social standing Scholars summarize this in a Latin Term: lex talionis : Law of Retribution: Eye for an Eye Hammurabi repres. The highest point in his dynasty Dynasty ends in 1595, thanks to invasion of two groups: Indo-European languages: Sea peoples, moves in from the South(in connection w/ Egypt) and Hithites invading from the North Mesp. Result of the invasions, declines in impt. Until 1900BC, with the rise of the Assyrian Empire Ending notes: 1 phenomena historical constant: everyone invades Iraq LECTURE 3: EGYPT: OLD KINGDOM Origins and geography Mesopotamia civilization rises, just barely, before Egypt Egypt is a VERY close second *key lies in geography Egypt lies in fertile crescent
Mesopotamia and its 2 rivers(Tigris and blah); Egypt: Nile Nile flows North over 6 cataracts, into the Mediterranean Northern most cataract is the boundary for ancient Egypt Nile divides in several branches 2 regions: Delta(lower Egypt) and Upper Egypt Originally, there were 2 sep. kingdoms: the combination marks the first Egyptian history “gift of the river” : Egyptian depended on the annual flooding of the Nile to water their crops, etc “Kmt”: the black land, the Egyptians called Egypt this Final artery of communication and trade encouraged the unification of Egypt At the same time, it’s naturally defended by: 1 st cataract south, Mediterranean north, desert east. Without this, maybe not Egypt? Isolation from Meso. gives Egpt. Civ. It’s defined characteristics Sense of superiority: they thought they were superior to all other people : Egyptian word for man, only applied to Egyptians, every one else is called a “vial” Strong conservatism Throughout history, those invaders who do reach Egypt, Before Unification: Predynastic Egypt

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