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Naram-Sin (r. 2260-2223): grandson of Sargon Greater empire than Sargon“king of the 4-quarters of the earth” Naram-Sin named himselfThe title is impt. It will be retained by near eastern kings, all the way down the Persian empire. ; Persian kings still call themselves thisLasts until a new wave of invaders comes from the east: Third Dynasty of UrThird Dynasty of Ur (2112-2004)Lasts not quite a centuryFalls to invaders from the desert: Amerites(spoke a language from the Semitic family) Sumerian itself becomes a dead language, but it doesn’t disappear, it remains a “learned” languageretains as literary tongue by the Mesp. prietsOld Babylonian period (2003-1595)Remain the most impt. City in the region for the rest of antiquityThe region, kingdom, and civilization is called BabyloniaMost accomplished Babylonian King: Hammurabi (r. ca. 1792-1750)
Under him, Mes. Achieves remarkable things in civilization: lit, math, astro, increased the size of his empire w/ agreesive military campaigning, grew his organizationHis greatest achievement: Code of HammurabiDiscovered in 1901, it’s currently in the LuMarriage relations, inheritance, violent crime, interest rates, trade, etcMost impt features: draws distinction between 3 social classes: nobles, commoners, and the slavesIndividuals receive protection of the law according to social standingScholars summarize this in a Latin Term: lex talionis: Law of Retribution: Eye for an EyeHammurabi repres. The highest point in his dynastyDynasty ends in 1595, thanks to invasion of two groups: Indo-European languages: Sea peoples, moves in from the South(in connection w/ Egypt) and Hithites invading from the NorthMesp. Result of the invasions, declines in impt. Until 1900BC, with the rise of the Assyrian EmpireEnding notes: 1 phenomena historical constant: everyone invades IraqLECTURE 3: EGYPT: OLD KINGDOMOrigins and geographyMesopotamia civilization rises, just barely, before EgyptEgypt is a VERY close second*key lies in geographyEgypt lies in fertile crescent
Mesopotamia and its 2 rivers(Tigris and blah); Egypt: NileNile flows North over 6 cataracts, into the MediterraneanNorthern most cataract is the boundary for ancient EgyptNile divides in several branches2 regions: Delta(lower Egypt) and Upper EgyptOriginally, there were 2 sep. kingdoms: the combination marks the first Egyptian history“gift of the river” : Egyptian depended on the annual flooding of the Nile to water their crops, etc“Kmt”: the black land, the Egyptians called Egypt thisFinal artery of communication and trade encouraged the unification of EgyptAt the same time, it’s naturally defended by: 1stcataract south, Mediterranean north, desert east. Without this, maybe not Egypt?Isolation from Meso. gives Egpt. Civ. It’s defined characteristicsSense of superiority: they thought they were superior to all other people : Egyptian word for man, only applied to Egyptians, every one else is called a “vial”Strong conservatismThroughout history, those invaders who do reach Egypt, Before Unification: Predynastic Egypt