11Describe the changes in the plasma membrane that result in the movement of

11describe the changes in the plasma membrane that

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11.Describe the changes in the plasma membrane that result in the movement of electrical impulses. (resting membrane potential, depolarization, repolarization)12.Identify the phases of cellular reproduction. (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase).13.Identify two mechanisms for tissue formation (Mitosis, chemotaxis) and the function of Stem cells.14.Identify the location and major function of each type of tissue: epithelialconnective, muscle and neural.2. Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology1.Know the definitions of the following cellular adaptations and identify conditions under which each can occur.a.Atrophy-decrease in cell size; ie agingb. Hypertrophyc. Hyperplasiad.Dysplasia-abnormal change in the size, shape, organization of maturetissue cellse.Metaplasia-reversible replacement of one mature cell type by anotherless mature cell type.2.Identify the mechanisms of cellular injury for the following causes:a.Hypoxia and reprofusion injuryb.Free radicals and reactive oxygen speciesc.Toxic chemical agents
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LeadCarbon monoxideEthanolMercuryRecreational drugsd. InjuriesContusionLacerationFractureLacerationStab woundGunshot woundf. Infectious agentsg. Immunologic and inflammatory injuryh. Nutritional imbalancesi. Ionizing radiationj. Sudden changes in atmospheric pressurek. mechanical stress and noisel. Know the definitions for:n=Necrosis (various types)Gangrenous necrosisGas gangrene m, Apoptosism. Describe theories of aging4. Genes and Genetic Diseases1. Define the composition and function of DNAa. DNA as the genetic codeb. Replicationc. Transcription2. Characterize chromosome abnormalities (definitions)a. Diploidb. Haploidc. Euploidd. Polyploide. Aneuploidf. trisomic or monosomicg. heteroploid3. Deviations in the normal structure
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3. Examine the characteristics of :4. Know the following definitions: a. Autosomal dominant inheritanceb. Autosomal recessive disordersc. X-linked chromosome disorders5. Genes, Environment -Lifestyle and Common Diseases1. Identify the criteria used to describe multifactorial diseasea. Incidence rate, prevalence rate, incidence rate 2. Describe the relationship between genetics and the environment or lifestyle as causal factors in diseases. 3. Identify some major system diseases that exhibit familial tendencies; suggestpossible contributing environmental or lifestyle factors in these diseases.a. Coronary artery disease and hypertensionb. Breast cancer (BRCA1and BRCA2) and the associated increased risk of ovarian cancerc. Colon Cancerd. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetese. Obesityf. Alzheimer diseaseg. Alcoholismh. Psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar)6. Epigenetics and Disease1. Describe the processes of methylation , Histone modification and micro-RNAs.
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