11 1 but complex systems have emergent properties 2

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Integration across many levels of organization (Fig. 1.1) 1. But, complex systems have emergent properties! 2. Levels of Organization 1. Physiology includes the entire continuum from atoms to the biosphere 2. Where do physiological systems fit? 1. Across all of physiology! 2. Organs systems are not the only types of physiological “systems” 3. Physiological systems include any type of system that is capable of control and regulation (i.e., maintaining homeostasis) 3. The interrelationships among the “classic” organ systems (Table 1.1) 1. Integumentary 2. Musculoskeletal 3. Respiratory 4. Digestive 5. Urinary 6. Reproductive 7. Circulatory 8. Nervous and Endocrine 9. Immune 4. Physiology: moving beyond the genome 1. Genomics to proteomics 1. Human Genome Project: an effort to “map” the human genome. 1. –Lots of information and data, but what does it all mean? We need to understand HOW this information determines STRUCTURE and FUNCTION! 2. The Physiome Project 1. Molecular, cellular, and physiological information: an attempt to understand the result of controlled and uncontrolled expression of the genome. 5. Translational research is an attempt to apply our understanding 1. Evidence-based medicine requiring integration from the lab bench to the bedside and vise versa. 6. Concept mapping or flow charts are tools to help us learn and think about this organization (see focus on … mapping, pg. 6) 1. Schematic diagram of structure and function 1. Cells, tissues, and organs 2. Flow charts 1. Diagram processes in sequence 3. Themes in Physiology 1. Structure-function relationships
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1. Molecular interactions (Chapter 2) 1. Mechanical properties of cells, tissues, and organs (The rest of the book!) 2. Compartmentation (Chapter 3) 2. Living organisms need energy (Chapter 4) 3. Information flow coordinates body functions (i.e., communication (Chapter 5 and 6) 1. Chemical and electrical signals 4. Homeostasis maintains stability (Chapter 1 and 6) 1. Control systems (Chapter 1 and 6) 5. Evolution: The change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations , which may be caused by natural selection , inbreeding , hybridization , or mutation (genetic drift).
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