III. Cold War in Europe 1. The conflicting aims in eastern europe led to the cold war 2. Dominated global affairs from 1945 to 1991 a. After the breakup of the soviet union A. The Truman Doctrine 1. 1945–1991 Cold War—conflict between U.S., U.S.S.R. a. -neither nation directly confronts the other on battlefield 2. Truman Doctrine—support against armed minorities, outsiders a. U.S. replaces British aid to Greece, Turkey; reduce communist threat B. The Marshall Plan 1. 1947, Sec. of State George Marshall proposes aid to nations in need 2. Marshall Plan revives 16 nations; Communist parties less appealing IV. Superpowers Struggle over Germany A. The Berlin Airlift 1. 1948, Stalin closes highway, rail routes into West Berlin 2. Berlin airlift—Britain, U.S. fly food, supplies into West Berlin a. 1949, Stalin lifts blockade 3. Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic form B. The NATO Alliance 1. Fear of Soviets leads to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 2. European nations, U.S., Canada pledge mutual military support SECTION 2: I. The “Loss” of China A. Nationalists Versus Communists 1. Chinese Communists battle nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek
a. U.S. supports Chiang, but his government is inefficient, corrupt 2. Communists, led by Mao Zedong, work to get peasant support a. Peasants flock to Red Army; by 1945, communists control north China B. Renewed Civil War 1. 1944–47, U.S. sends military aid to Nationalists to oppose communism 2. 1949, Nationalists flee to island of Taiwan 3. Communists establish People’s Republic of China in mainland 4. U.S. does not recognize Communist Chinese government C. America Reacts to Communist Takeover 1. U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover 2. Conservatives blame Truman for not sending enough aid II. The Korean War A. A Divided Country 1. 38th parallel (38° N latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea 2. North of 38th parallel surrenders to U.S.S.R.; south to U.S. 3. Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea founded B. North Korea Attacks South Korea 1. 1950, North Korea invaded South, begins Korean War 2. South Korea calls on UN to stop invasion; Security Council approves 3. MacArthur put in command of South Korea, U.S., other forces III. The United States Fights in Korea A. North Korean initial offensive drives south, captures Seoul 1. UN, South Korean troops forced into small defensive zone B. MacArthur’s Counterattack 1. MacArthur attacks North Koreans from 2 sides, pushes into north C. The Chinese Fight Back 1. China sends troops to help North Korea; push south, capture Seoul 2. Fighting continues for 2 more years D. MacArthur Recommends Attacking China 1. MacArthur calls for war with China, reasons that US is fighting China directly; Truman rejects request a. Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact 2. UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance north to 38th parallel E. MacArthur Versus Truman 1. MacArthur continues to push for invasion of China; Truman fires him 2. Public outraged over hero’s dismissal 3. Congressional committee investigation concludes Truman right F. Settling for Stalemate 1. 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire a.
- Fall '18
- Richard Smock
- Cold War