NE101 Lecture Notes

Dampens involuntary movement phylogenetically older

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dampens involuntary movement phylogenetically older than pyramidal 3. Cerebellum fine timing / coordination Cerebellar dysfunction impairs voluntary movement impairs ability for fine motor control Basal Ganglia dysfunction trouble with movement initiation Parkinson's disease cannot move voluntary but with a goal – they can move Organization of Movement 3 components Cortex command (M1) Basal ganglia and Cerebellum refine / adjust motion Brainstem and Spinal cord execution of movement CPG's (reflexes) Frontal Lobes M1 conscious motion Motor association cortex (premotor/supplementary) motor planning Perception – Action Cycle 1. Visualize information
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2. Frontal-lobe motor area plans the reach and the command the movement 3. The spinal chord carries information to the hand 4. Motor neurons carry the message to nucleus of the hand and forearm 5. Sensory receptors on the hand send a message to the sensory cortex saying the cup has been grasped 6. The spinal cord carries sensory information to the brain 7. Basal ganglia judges grasp forces, and the cerebellum corrects movement errors 8. The sensory cortex receives the message that the cup has been grasped Neocortical contributions Posterior SS cortex sensory Prefrontal cortex plans movement Primary and premotor cortex “Motor lexicon” What is a motor lexicon? Cells in M1 have widespread horizontal connection Motor cortex not organized for movement of single muscles Rather, organized for movements, which may involve coordination of many muscles “Muscle memory” December 3, 2012: Introduction to Computational Neuroscience “Replicate a brain” Q: What does it mean? Program a computer to simulate all mechanism of a brain. Biology (neurons, synapses, ion channels, neurotransmitters,...) Program a computer to achieve the functions of a brain. In computational neuroscience... Interdisciplinary: Wet sciences, dry sciences, and physics Computational perspective Sometimes a tension between biology and computation. “All science is either physics or stamp collecting.” - Ernest Rutherford Biological perspective “Basically, the theorist is a lazy person masquerading as a diligent one.” - Santiago Ramon y Cajal Inclusive philosophy Three pronged approach to computational neuroscience: 1. Data 2. Analysis 3. Models The “Computation” in computational neuroscience 1. Motivation Ex: The brain is a “computer” The brain and a computer can perform similar operations
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Problems: The nervous systems lacks a systemwide clock The nervous system is built from random elements The brain is constantly reprograms itself.
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