and repressed material. The dream-work finds a way to express the sadness, the loss, the guilt...without the dreamer having to consciously face the trauma directly. In the interpretation of the dream the Latent, True Content, comes from of the personal biography of the dreamer. This content provides the meaning of the experience of the dream. The outcome of the interpretation is insight into the repressed content which is not conscious for the dreamer. This repressed material is Unconscious . This is why Freud calls dreams the "royal road to the unconscious". THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE - THE REALITY PRINCIPLE This will be discussed further when we look at Freud's understanding of the relation of the mind and society. For now, note that the motivating principle of the Id is Immediate Gratification which is also referred to as the Pleasure Principle. In the dream example, the Id seeks its expression; there is a wish to reveal the repressed content. However, the desire of the Id is unacceptable to the conscious Ego and so, to conceal that content, the Ego engages in the censorship process which is the dream-work. The Ego which is in contact with the external world must deal with the fundamental principle of the external world which involves Delayed Gratification which is also referred to as the Reality Principle. The Ego is caught between the external world and the demands of the Id in a struggle for survival in the context of everyday life. So, in addition to the conflicts within the model of the mind, the mind is engaged in conflict with the external world. This structure of internal and external conflict is central to the Western understanding of the relation of self and society. Summary Comments About The Dream-Work The Interpretation of Dreams When Freud looks into the meaning of dreams in order to reveal more about the mind, the focus is on interpretation . Interpretation is central because the dream itself involves what he calls ‘dream-censorship’ and ‘representation by symbols’. The dream must be interpreted because the appearance of the dream is different from its meaning. Dreams as Sensible Psychical Acts For dreams to be taken as significant and in need of interpretation, we must assume that there is some sense to them, that they are actually saying something. According to Freud and psychoanalysis as a theory and practice, dreams are considered “sensible psychical acts”. So, not only are they sensible , not only do they make sense and can be understood rationally, but they are also acts . They are the act of the mind expressing itself, expressing its various interests, conflicts and tensions. For this reason, dreams are a way to get to the unconscious, and specifically, to get at the ways in which the unconscious is in conflict with the conscious person, as well as with reality.
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