complete enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings. 12. The Dalai Lama is the highest spiritual authority for recognising reincarnations. At the requests of devotees, he uses multiple methods such as divination, meditation and consultation with national oracles Á Palden Lhamo and Nechung as well as other holy masters Á to confirm his decision regarding a reincarnation. Relatedly, other holy masters also recognise reincarnations and, more often than not, they consult the Dalai Lama for confirmation. 13. Today, many monastic institutions also offer modern education to young monks and nuns. For example, Sera Jhe of the Sera Monastic university in South India run a separate modern school to educate young monks in English, Math and Sciences beside Tibetan education. Similarly, Dolma Ling nunnery in Dharamsala also offers courses in modern subjects to its nuns. 14. This indicates both the changing aspect of Tibetan culture as well as the flexibility of Tibetans to adapt to new cultural environments. These issues certainly deserve a focus on their own (see Korom, 1997). References Abrams, J., O’Connor, J. and Giles, H. (2003) Identity and intergroup communication. In W.B. Gudykunst (ed.) Cross-cultural and Intercultural Communication (pp. 209 Á 224). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Aris, M. and Suu Kyi, A.S. (eds) (1979) Tibetan Studies in Honor of Hugh Richardson: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Tibetan Studies . Oxford, England: Aris and Phillips Ltd. Avedon, J. (1984) In Exile from the Land of Snows . New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Beyer, S.V. (1992) The Classical Tibetan Language . NY: State University of New York. Bhavanakrama of Kamalasila (1997) (P. Sharma, trans.) New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Bourhis, R.Y., Moise, L.C., Perreault, S. and Senecal, S. (1997) Toward an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology 32, 369 Á 386. 154 Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development Downloaded by  at 14:07 09 September 2015
Cabezon, J.I. (1990) Tibetan language. In C. Elchert and P. Sugden (eds) White Lotus: An Introduction to Tibetan Culture (pp. 155 Á 158). Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion. Cabezon, J.I. and Jackson, R.R. (eds) (1996) Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre . Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion. Changching, C. and Seymour, J.D. (1998) Tibet through Dissident Chinese Eyes: Essays on Self-determination . Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Cle ´ment, R., Noels, K.A. and Deneault, B. (2001) Interethnic contact, identity, and psychological adjustment: The mediating and moderating roles of communication. Journal of Social Issues 57, 559 Á 577. Cook, I.G. and Murray, G. (2001) China’s Third Revolution: Tensions in the Transition Towards a Post-communist China . Britain: Curzon Press. Coleman, G. (ed.) (1994) A Handbook of Tibetan Culture: A Guide to Tibetan Centers and Resources throughout the World . Boston: Shambhala. Collier, M.J. (1997) Cultural identity and intercultural communication. In L.A. Samovar and R.E. Porter (eds) Intercultural Communication: A Reader (pp. 36 Á 44). San Francisco: Wadsworth.
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