Jacob, L., Haro, J. M., & Koyanagi, A. (2018). Relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity

Apms publications cowlishaw kessler 2016 jacob haro

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APMS publications ( Cowlishaw & Kessler, 2016 ; Jacob, Haro, & Koyanagi, 2018c ; Rai et al., 2014 ). Mediating variables. This study included several medi- ating variables [marital status ( Botterill et al., 2016 ; Harpin, 2005 ), employment ( Feigelman et al., 1995 ; Harpin, 2005 ), smoking status ( McClernon & Kollins, 2008 ; Petry & Oncken, 2002 ), alcohol dependence ( del Pino-Gutiérrez et al., 2017 ; Wilens, 2004 ), drug use ( Wareham & Potenza, 2010 ; Wilens, 2004 ), IQ ( Biederman et al., 2012 ; Rai et al., 2014 ), common mental disorders (CMDs; depressive epi- sode and/or anxiety disorders) ( Becker et al., 2015 ; Clarke, 2006 ; Davidsson et al., 2017 ), BPD traits ( Matthies & Philipsen, 2014 ; Oliva et al., 2017 ), perceived stress and the number of stressful life events ( Biback & Zack, 2015 ; Vrijsen et al., 2017 ), and impulsivity ( Hodgins & Holub, 2015 ; Miller et al., 2010 )], which may be associated with or be the consequence of ADHD, and also be the cause of gambling problems. Sociodemographic variables. Two variables were includ- ed: marital status (married/cohabiting and single/widowed/ divorced/separated) and employment (yes/no). Smoking status. Participants were asked about their smoking activity and were classi fi ed as never smokers (never) or past/current smokers (quit/current). Alcohol dependence. Excessive alcohol consumption was screened using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identi fi - cation Test (AUDIT; Saunders, Aasland, Babor, de la Fuente, & Grant, 1993 ). Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire in participants with an AUDIT score of 10 or above ( Stockwell, Sitharthan, McGrath, & Lang, 1994 ). Scores of four or above indicated alcohol depen- dence in the past 6 months. Drug use. Each individual was asked if he/she had used one of the following drugs in the past year: cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, heroin, acid or LSD, magic mushrooms, methadone or physeptone, tranquilizers, amyl nitrate, anabolic steroids, and glues. Those who used at least one of these drugs were consid- ered to be drug users ( Jacob, Haro, & Koyanagi, 2018a ). Intelligence quotient (IQ). Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART). The NART, a brief measure administered only to native English speak- ers and widely used in the world, consists of a list of 50 words and is scored by counting the number of errors made while reading out the words ( Ali et al., 2013 ; Rai et al., 2014 ). There were 531 participants who were not administered the test (e.g., English not being their fi rst language, eyesight problems, dyslexia, or refusal). IQ ranged from 70 to 127. Verbal IQ is referred to as IQ in this manuscript for the sake of brevity. Common mental disorders (CMDs). CMDs were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, and referred to depressive episode and/or anxiety dis- orders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder) in the prior week ( Stickley & Koyanagi, 2016 ).
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  • Fall '17
  • The Land, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Problem gambling

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