[Type text][Type text][Type text]1.The bringing together of (potentially diverse) nations into one (multinational) state -Ex. Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, etc. 2.The breaking apart of (potentially similar) nations into two (or more) sovereign states - Ex. Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, etc. oSuch forces are always present for every country - based on how things are at a particular moment to see how they go These geopolitical forces are known as: Centrifugal forces:tearing places apart oCultural homogeneity - how homogeneous is the nation/population that is a part of that sovereign state - religion, language -When there isn't a lot of homogeneity - it can lead to the breaking apart oCultural history -When one group believes that the other group has had more power over them - antagonism and animosity oBoundaries - where do the boundaries exist within the states, countries, etc. - can lead to the breaking apart of severing states Centripetal forces:bringing things togetherState Instability: results from divisions within the stateInternal divisions: oSecessionist Movements: nations within multinational states that want to create their own separate state Ex. Quebec, Scotland, Belgium, Basque (Spain and France) - tied to a strong sense of nationalism In some cases, state instability is driven by circumstances whereby a nation has no state of its own, but overlaps with several other states oEx. The Kurds (see Box 9.4) - Kurdistan -A nation (or several nations) of ~20 million people that have no state of their own - though, they have a contested territory Africa: boundaries reflect colonial interests oIndependence: slower than elsewhere (ie. The Americas) - not until the 1950/60s compared to the other colonial areas much earlier Dependence:impoverished colonies, too dependent on the colonial power Discordance between nations and colonial states - a place having to get independence from the areas they are in colonial areas (ie. Half from France, half from UK) Conflict has continued in Africa (longer than elsewhere) due to: o(Often) violent independent movement - a revolution ??oExistence of incongruent boundaries oAs a result, Civil war is common Ie. Liberia, Sudan, AlgeriaIe. Congo, Nigeria, Niger Europe: greater stability de to organic development over a longer period of time Many pockets of conflict remain oBritain (N. Ireland, Scotland, Wales) oBelgium oFrance (Brittany, Alsace) oSpain (Basque, Catalonia) Types of Conflict Conflict: 5 main types/categories1.