ISS_225_Lec_9_Personality

Exercising insomnia all affect the way we feel and

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exercising, insomnia all affect the way we feel and behave, but also the way we think about ourselves and the world. 2. Neurotransmitters A Neuron is a specialized nerve cell that receives, processes, and transmits information to other cells in the body. Information comes into the neuron through the Dendrites from other neurons. It then continues to the Cell Body – (soma) which is the main part of the neuron, which contains the nucleus and maintains the life sustaining functions of the neuron. The soma processes information and then passes it along the Axon. At the end of the axon are bulb-like structures called Terminal Buttons that pass the information on to glands, muscles, or other neurons. 2
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Personality Biochemical substances called neurotransmitters carry information. Neurotransmitters have been studied quite a bit in relation to psychology and human behavior. What we have found is that several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we behave, learn, the way we feel, and sleep. And, some play a role in mental illnesses. Here are some examples: Dopamine – correlated with movement, attention, and learning § Too much dopamine has been associated with schizophrenia, and too little is associated with some forms of depression as well as the muscular rigidity and tremors found in Parkinson’s disease. Norepinephrine – associated with eating, alertness § Too little norepinephrine has been associated with depression, while an excess has been associated with schizophrenia. Epinephrine – involved in energy, and glucose metabolism § Too little epinephrine has been associated with depression. Serotonin – plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior § Too little serotonin is associated with depression and some anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder. Some antidepressant medications increase the availability of serotonin at the receptor sites. Endorphins – involved in pain relief and feelings of pleasure and contentedness Please note that these associations are merely correlations, and do not necessarily demonstrate any cause and effect relationship. We don’t know what other variables may be affecting both the neurotransmitter and the mental illness, and we don’t know if the change in the neurotransmitter causes the illness, or the illness causes the change in the neurotransmitter. 3. The Brain and Nervous System The nervous system is broken down into two major systems: Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System. The Central Nervous System consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The Cerebral Cortex , which is involved in a variety of higher cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions, is more developed in humans than any other animal. It is what we see when we picture a human brain, the gray matter with a multitude of folds covering the cerebrum . The brain is divided into two symmetrical hemispheres: left (language, the ‘rational’ half of the brain, associated with analytical
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