Change learning encouraged agents of socialization

This preview shows page 7 - 9 out of 12 pages.

Change (learning) encouraged Agents of Socialization Each society has range of different institutions that prepare and guide successive cohorts through each stage of life Families o Most important agent of primary socialization Process of mastering basic skills needed to function in society during childhood o Well suited to providing careful, intimate attention required o Small group o Members in frequent face-to-face contact o Parents love and care for children Ideal for teaching o Family into which you are born exerts enduring influence over course of life Religion Religious groups grow by recruiting children whose parents already belong to group Parents key source of children’s religious identification o Children no passive recipients of social processes They give meaning to experiences and participate in own socialization Relationship between parents and children is bidirectional o No two children are alike, and every family has changing needs Child socialization process not the same for each child o More pronounced a century ago Adult family members more available then today o Family life went underwent another shift from increasing divorce rates less stable and more complex families contact with fathers dwindled Schools: Functions and Conflicts o Child-care problem resolved partly by growth of public school system o Secondary socialization Outside family after childhood o Hidden curriculum Teaches students what will be expected in larger society once they graduate How to be good citizens Not just performance that determines success Class, gender, sexual orientation, racial criteria Has done its job if it convinces students that they are judged on basis of performance alone Teaches Punctuality Respect for authority
Importance of competition in leading performance Other conformist behaviours and beliefs Symbolic Interactionism and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy o Hidden curriculum rejected by some working-class and minority-group children Learn from their own experience and parents’ experiences that they are less likely to achieve much even if they follow rules Have limited resources and face discrimination experience limited upward mobility and economic success o symbolic interactionists proposed Thomas Theorem Describes the plight of working-class and minority-group students Situations we define as real become real in their consequences Self-fulfilling prophecy Expectation that helps to cause what it predicts Affect teachers as well o Teachers’ expectations alone influenced students’ performance Peer Groups o Importance grew in 20 th century o Consist of people who are not necessarily friends but are about same age and of similar status Recognized social position o Help children and adolescents separate from families and develop independent sources of identity o Influential over lifestyle issues o Between middle childhood and adolescence, they are often dominant socializing agent o

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture