Critical thinking deals with the testing and

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Critical thinking deals with the testing and evaluation of the proposed solutions. i)                    According to Halpern (1996), Critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or  strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. It is used to describe thinking that is  purposeful, reasoned and goal directed - the kind of thinking involved in solving problems,  formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions when the thinker is using skills  that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task. Critical thinking  also involves evaluating the thinking process - the reasoning that went into the conclusion we've  arrived at the kinds of factors considered in making a decision. Critical thinking is sometimes called  directed thinking because it focuses on a desired outcome ii)                  To Kurland (1995), Critical thinking is concerned with reason, intellectual honesty, and  open-mindedness, as opposed to emotionalism, intellectual, laziness, and closed-mindedness.  Thus, Critical thinking involves: following evidence where it leads; considering all possibilities; relying on reason rather than emotion; being precise; considering a variety of possible viewpoints and  explanations; weighing the effects of motives and biases; being concerned more with finding the  truth than with being right; not rejecting unpopular views out of hand; being aware of one's own  prejudices and biases, and not allowing them to sway one's judgement.
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From the above two definitions we can conclude that; i)                     Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully  conceptualising, applying, analysing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered  from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.  In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that  transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound  evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures  or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue, assumptions, concepts, empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions, implications and consequences,  objections from alternative viewpoints, and frame of reference. Critical thinking - in being responsive  to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes - is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of 
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