decrease in children born with certain genetic abnormalities such as down syndrome Maternal Mortality: 650 women die in US every yr due to preg during pregnancy and a year after birth from a complication of preg 21 maternal deaths/100,000 live births in TX 95 women died in 2010, compared to 44.5 mortality rate for heart disease Infant Mortality: death in first yr US 6/1000 significant race disparity, tied to birth rate TX 64% in first 27 days Leading causes: congenital malformation disorders due to short gestation sids complications of preg/placenta 11/10/15
Childbirth: in 2012 about 4,000,000 babies born everyday Childbirth in 2010: avg. age at first birth for women = 25.4 yrs slight increase over past years preterm birth rate (<37 wks) was 11.99% (declining), early preterm (<34 wks) was 3.5% 32.4% Csection, only 1.2% of births at home mainly hospital births Vaginal birth: three stages contractions (begin at abt 3cm dilation) birth (dilation abt 10cm) placenta water breaking only happens about 10% of births more often happens during birth Braxton hicks contractions Pain control: nonmedical: homebirth, water birth, meditation, etc (Business of Being Born) medical: epidural analgesia episiotomy: small incision made on perineum to enlarge vaginal opening Cesarean Section (Csection) incisions made through mother’s abdomen and uterus and to deliver one or more babies recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to a woman breech baby = feet first major abdominal surgery: surgical complications maternal rehospitalization more common costs are double reasons for: birth complications (large baby, previous csection, breech, retrieving early) inducing labor doctor convenience parental convenience Average stats: b/w 69 lbs double in weight by 4 months Kangaroo care: naked baby to naked parent's chest benefits: reduced infant mortality (70% to 30% Bogota Colombia) stabilizes baby heart rate, breathing, and temperature more sleep & less crying improves bonding and confidence of caregivers
Feeding: no solid foods before 4 mos of age (6 mos if possible) only breastmilk or formula Breastfeeding: recommended for first yr of baby’s life (77% of mother’s attempt; 13% exclusively breastfeed through 6mos) “free” healthier? immunity boost 1st 6 wks may be key promotes skin to skin contact feedback system iq boost? helps shrink uterus back to size may lower risk of breast cancer can be emotionally and physically exhausting 1840 oz/day (birth6mos) take a class partner should be involved your work situation will greatly affect your ability to breastfeed 11/12/15 Breastfeeding: babies who were breastfed were more likely to be reported to have asthma higher economic status = more likely to breastfeed has time to take off work and care for baby than go straight back to work Formula v Breastmilk: not a lot of science to support that breastmilk is better than formula formula:
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- Spring '08