DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

African jackals may have provided one breed of

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African Jackals may have provided one breed of domestic dog , and the donkey and the cat are clearly African. Some of these animals would enter religions through animistic philosophy in Egypt
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The polishing of stone implements was probably a by-product of the grinding of red ochre, in wide demand for its magic properties since the Paleolithic and extensively used in Africa in the Mesolithic and later. One result of the grinding of ochre was to polish the grindstone, and another, when the upper grindstone was used at an angle, was to develop a sharp edge that, produced accidentally, may have led to the idea of grinding the cutting edge of celts or other tools. Repeated pecking of the flat surfaces of the grindstones that became too smooth to grind ochre efficiently led to perforation of the stone and thus to the development of the disk macehead of the Nile Valley. A celt is a common prehistoric tool of stone or metal, shaped like a chisel or ax head. Archaeology must still establish where and when celts were first ground; but the partly polished celts of the Fayum and Khartoum are probably the earliest forms of that tool known. The cultivation of wheat, barley, and flax probably were Asiatic developments that first entered Africa through the Nile Delta. The cultivation of one form of wheat may have originated in Ethiopia, however. In Egypt, civilization first reached its full development around 3000 BC, but though it passed through Copper and Bronze ages and introduced copper tools to The Sudan, there is no evidence of either of these ages in the rest of Africa . In the rest of Africa, a transition from the Stone Age, generally still Mesolithic in type, directly to the Iron Age took place gradually during the last two millennia and in a few places did not take place until the middle of the 20th century. However, in some localities, an intermediate state, when Neolithic forms were used, occurred (e.g., Zaire and Ghana). Elsewhere (e.g., Kenya) polished-stone celts, or axes, seem so rare that they may have been comparatively late imports from the north. The Sumerian culture grew in southern Mesopotamia, near the Persian Gulf. They established the social, economic and intellectual foundations of Mesopotamian culture and were followed by Akkadians and Babylonians who united the region. These peoples contributed important advances in technology (bronze tools and weapons), in writing (cuneiform), law, education and religious thought. Early Sumerian temples were built on the ruins of the last one, and they developed into stepped towers called Ziggurats (from an Assyrian word meaning pinnacles ). The ziggurat of Ur was built by King Ur-Nammu and dedicated to the Sumerian moon goddess, Nanna. The Babylonians also built many ziggurats , which served as temples to their various gods and goddesses. Their highest god was Marduk.
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