1992 Peltzer Pengpid 2006 Wellings et al 2006 Ghule Balaiah Joshi 2007 Sexual

1992 peltzer pengpid 2006 wellings et al 2006 ghule

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1992; Peltzer & Pengpid, 2006; Wellings et al.,2006; Ghule, Balaiah, & Joshi, 2007).Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and BisexualityGHow does sexual orientation develop?GWhen we consider adolescents’ sexual development, the most frequent pattern is heterosexuality,sexual attraction and behavior directed to the other sex. Yet some teenagers are homosexual, inwhich their sexual attraction and behavior is oriented to members of their own sex. (Most malehomosexuals prefer the term gay and female homosexuals the label lesbian, because they refer toa broader array of attitudes and lifestyle than the term homosexual, which focuses on the sexualact.) Other people find they are bisexual, sexually attracted to people of both sexes. Many teensexperiment with homosexuality. At one time or another, around 20 to 25 percent of adolescentboys and 10 percent of adolescent girls have at least one same-sex sexual encounter. In fact,homosexuality and heterosexuality are not completely distinct sexual orientations. Alfred Kinsey,a pioneer sex researcher, argued that sexual orientation should be viewed as a continuum inwhich “exclusively homosexual” is at one end and “exclusively heterosexual” at the other(Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948). 2
In between are people who show both homosexual and heterosexual behavior. Although accuratefigures are difficult to obtain, most experts believe that between 4 and 10 percent of both menand women are exclusively homosexual during extended periods of their lives (Michael et al.,1994; Diamond, 2003a, 2003b; Russell & Consolacion, 2003; Pearson & Wilkinson, 2013).The determination of sexual orientation is further complicated by distinctions between sexualorientation and gender identity. While sexual orientation relates to the object of one’s sexualinterests, gender identity is the gender a person believes he or she is psychologically. Sexualorientation and gender identity are not necessarily related to one another: a man who has a strongmasculine gender identity may be attracted to other men. Consequently, the extent to which menand women enact traditional “masculine” or “feminine” behavior is not necessarily related totheir sexual orientation or gender identity (Hunter & Mallon, 2000).Some people feel they have been born the wrong physical sex, believing, for example, that theyare women trapped in men’s bodies. These transgendered individuals may pursue sexualreassignment surgery, a prolonged course of treatment in which they receive hormones andreconstructive surgery so they are able to take on the physical characteristics of the other sex.The factors that induce people to develop as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual are not wellunderstood. Evidence suggests that genetic and biological factors may play an important role. Studies oftwins show that identical twins are more likely to both be homosexual than pairs of siblings whodon’t share their genetic makeup. Other research finds that various structures of the brain are

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