layer PHY Media Access Control MAC RLC Radio Link Control Radio Resource

Layer phy media access control mac rlc radio link

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layer (PHY), Media Access Control (MAC), RLC (Radio Link Control), Radio Resource Control (RRC) and Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) functions. BS virtualization requires baseband radio processing using IT virtualization technologies, such as high-performance general purpose processors and real-time processing virtualization to provide the required signal processing capacity. Moreover, BS virtualization for C-RAN requires building the processing resource, i.e. Base Band Unit (BBU) pool for aggregating the resources onto centralized virtualized environment such as a Data Center (DC) or cloud infrastructure. 8.2 Virtualization of Mobile Core Network Today’s mobile core networks are populated with a large variety of expensive proprietary hardware appliances as well as hard state signalling protocols. When a specific function is not available, cellular operators have to replace an existing equipment even if it is still sufficient for most purposes, which reveals the difficulty to scale up and scale down the offered services rapidly, as required. Fig 5: Virtualisation of EPC
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Page 16 (Source : Network Functions Virtualization: Challenges and Opportunities for Innovations, AT&T Labs Research, Bedminster, USA) These problems can potentially be addressed by Cloud EPC (Evolved Packet Core, EPC is the core network for LTE) by virtualization of the mobile core network to meet changing market requirements. The virtualization targets of EPC include Mobility Management Entity (MME), Home Subscriber Server (HSS), Serving Gateway (SGW), Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW) and Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF). To better support Voice over LTE (VoLTE), cellular operators can also virtualise the components of an IP Multimedia System (IMS), including various Call Session Control Functions (CSCFs) such as Proxy-CSCF, Serving-CSCF and Interrogating-CSCF, and Breakout and Media Gateway Control Functions. Virtualization of EPC for 4G LTE networks and its coexistence with the legacy EPC is illustrated in Figure 5. The coexistence is made possible through technologies such as MME pooling. It should be noted that it is possible to virtualize only part of the mobile core network, such as SGW and PGW, and use physical appliance for other components. By virtualising the aforementioned network functions, Cloud EPC allows us to move towards a more intelligent, resilient and scalable core architecture which enables flexible distribution of hardware resources to eliminate performance bottlenecks and rapid launch of innovative services to generate new revenue sources (e.g., machine-to-machine communications). The virtualization of EPC frees distributed network resources from their geographic limitations to ensure service reliability and stability in the event of local resource failure and reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). It also makes the flexible deployment of SGW and PGW possible, for example, co-locating them with an eNodeB and thus eliminating the long-distance tunnels. With Cloud EPC, cellular carriers can not only expand their current horizontal market business, but also capitalize on previously untouched vertical markets.
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