●Allies were able to defeat Axis powers in Europe because: 1.The location of Germany and its allies, they had to fight on several frontssimultaneously.2.Hitler made some poor decisions when he took almost complete control overmilitary decisions, such as underestimating the ability of the Soviet Union to fighthis armies.3.The enormous productive capacity of the U.S. By 1944 the U.S. was producingtwice as much as all of the Axis powers combined. 4.Allied bombing hindered German production → oil became so scarce becauseof the bombing that the Luftwaffe was almost grounded by the time of the D-Day invasion.Struggle for the Pacific●Until mid-1942, the Japanese won several victories such as much of Southeast Asia andnumerous Pacific islands.●In May 1942, Japanese had gained complete control of the Philippines, killing severalhundred American soldiers as well as 10,000 Filipino soldiers during the 65-mile BataanDeath March. The march took place from the Bataan peninsula to confinement campsthroughout the Philippines.●Filipino civilians who were caught providing food and water for the captives in the marchoften lost their own lives. Those who survived the march would spend the next 40 monthsin horrific conditions at confinement camps. Most were transported to the Japanese manisland aboard “death ships.”●But the United States finally fought back after the battles of Midway and the Coral Sea.●United States Marines conquered Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands during thesummer, starting an “island-hopping” campaign during the summer.●This campaign was intended to recapture Japanese-held islands and bypass others assteppingstones to the next objective.●Thus, this was how General Douglas MacArthur (leader of the American forces)gradually led American forces north toward Japan.●1944, the United States Navy led by Admiral Chester Nimitz barricaded Japan whileAmerican bombers targeted Japanese cities and industries.●October 1944, MacArthur began the process of reconquering the Philippines whereas theBritish forced the Japanese back into Burma and Malaya jungles.Defeat for Japan●With the war won in Europe, the allies pushed their efforts and resources to defeatingJapan.
●Mid-1945, most of the Japanese navy and air force was destroyed, but Japanese army stillhad 2 million men.Invasion or the Bomb?●February-March 1945, battle on island Iwo Jima (Volcanic island 660 miles south ofTokyo). 70,000 U.S. Marines and 18,000 Japanese soldiers took part in the battle. Inthirty-six days of fighting on the island, nearly 7,000 U.S. Marines were killed. Another20,000 were wounded. Marines captured 216 Japanese soldiers; the rest were killed inaction. The island was finally declared secured on March 16, 1945. It had been one of thebloodiest battles in Marine Corps history. ●April- July 1945, battle on island Okinawa (located less than 350 miles from the Japanesehomeland). This was known as Operation Iceberg, and was the largest amphibiouslanding in the pacific during the war. It also resulted in the largest casualties with over100,000 Japanese casualties, 12,510 Americans killed, and 42,000-150,000 Okinawancitizens died as well. The battle lasted 82 days.