The procedure to construct a Merchant’s circle diagram
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∅
Work
Tool
Chip
Clearance
Angle
F
t
F
c
F
N
F
n
F
s
α
α
β
(
β

α
)
R
A line can now
be drawn from
the head of the
friction
vector,
to the head of
the
resultant
vector (R). This
gives
the
normal
vector
(N). Also add a
friction
angle
(
β
)
between
vectors
R
and
N.
Therefore,
mathematically,
R = F
c
+F
t
=
F + N.
The procedure to construct a Merchant’s circle diagram
∅
Work
Tool
Chip
Clearance
Angle
F
t
F
c
F
N
F
n
F
s
α
α
β
(
β

α
)
R
The procedure to construct a Merchant’s circle diagram
Draw
a
feed
thickness
line
parallel
to
the
horizontal
axis.
Next
draw a chip
thickness
line
parallel
to
the
tool
cutting
face.
Subscribe to view the full document.
∅
Work
Tool
Chip
Clearance
Angle
F
t
F
c
F
N
F
n
F
s
α
α
β
(
β

α
)
R
The procedure to construct a Merchant’s circle diagram
Draw a vector
from the origin
(tool
point)
towards
the
intersection of
the
two
chip
lines, stopping
at
the
circle.
The result will
be
a
shear
force
vector
(Fs).
Also
measure
the
shear
force
angle between
Fs and Fc.