a gas based one a mix of sustainable transportation policies efficient

A gas based one a mix of sustainable transportation

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a gas-based one, a mix of sustainable transportation policies, efficient residential stoves and boilers, and an adequate system of incentives for compliance at all levels. These are aligned with the Macedonian Government EU-backed regulatory efforts towards compliance with the EU environmental acquis, making the issue of implementation the most pressing concern. Such implementation is likely to be more sustainable and effective if it is supported by adequate multi-level governance structures and inclusive policy processes [ 33 ]. 5. Conclusions Inhalable particulate matter causes significant mortality and illness in Skopje. The average life expectancy of the residents of Skopje is being reduced by 2 to 3 years through a largely preventable environmental factor like anthropogenic air pollution. It also entails a sizeable welfare cost to society. While there is no safe level of PM, any decrease in concentrations will benefit health in Skopje by decreasing premature mortality and morbidity, and related economic costs. The attainment of the European Union standards for PM can provide substantial health and economic benefits, but the attainment of WHO air quality guidelines levels can provide further benefits and should eventually constitute a policy goal. Our results underscore the urgency of implementation of measures to reduce emissions and, ultimately, exposure. Even a limited assessment like the one featured in this work can provide useful evidence for policymaking. This is currently very relevant, as MKD continues to align its regulations with the EU acquis [ 34 ] on environmental issues and is in the process of implementing a National Environmental Health Action Plan to tackle the main environmental concerns in the country. More research and local evaluations on the health and economic impacts of urban air pollution are needed, particularly in EU accession countries and other neighboring countries in which the local evidence base on this topic is scarce. Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at . Figure S1—Time trend of mid-year population stratified by age under current conditions; Figure S2—Costs of PM 2.5 concentrations and mitigation scenarios for the city of Skopje; Figure S3—Cumulative mortality cost based on YLL for current pollution level. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under (Grant Agreement No. 308497) (Project RAMSES). This paper reflects the authors’ views. The European Commission is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. We gratefully acknowledge the continued support from the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building, and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit) for our activities in this area, including research. We also thank Margarita Spasenovska, from the WHO Country Office in MKD, for her on-site coordination and support in data collection.
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  • Fall '18
  • Noor Shah

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