culturally acceptable substitutes for armed conflict and killing). As Key sees it, these symbols are effective when used alone, but are reinforced by embeds such as the word "sex"or taboo words with sexual connotation. Key is convinced that the symbols or words are embedded intoillustrations by skillful airbrushing or retouching of photographs, and by use of overlays and other artfulmanipulation in order to make the stimuli appear just below the threshold of conscious perception. Key says that once subliminal information becomes apparent to the conscious mind, its effectiveness as asubconscious stimulus is destroyed. He also says that contrary to the earlier study by Bressler (1931) the stimulusloses its effectiveness the closer it gets to the threshhold of conscious awareness. Bressler (1931) found just theopposite effect in his study involving the use of progressively darker colored paper. Key's Media Sexploitation, published in 1976, was a continuation of the theme begun in Subliminal Seduction butextended to encompass media coverage and marketing in general. There was, however, an interesting chapter on"Subliminal Rock", in which he found subconscious references not only to sex but to drugs, rebellion and death aswell. Some methods of subliminal persuasion include these: 1. Smell. Disney World puts vanilla on cookie sheets and heats it in an oven. People smell "cookies baking" andcome to the cookie shop for fresh cookies. In reality, the cookies were baked someplace else. The smell of vanillareminds us of cookies. Several studies on humans indicate that men are much more attracted to a woman when her body is releasingpheromones. Men don't consciously smell her, but still smell tells them that she is in the most fertile part of hercycle. 2. Sight. Usually images are hidden within images. They can be upside down or distorted or appear socommonplace that we miss it. I'll show you lots of ads that are examples of visual subliminal persuasion. Film andtelevision can also be used as subliminal media. Most subliminal messages appeal to sex. I presume sex is usedbecause companies want consumers to feel sexy about buying alcohol, clothing, or cigarettes. 3. Sound. Sound can be played at a level that is higher or lower than the range of conscious human hearing. Soundcan be backmasked, meaning the subliminal message is laid down on one track and then other tracks of sound areplaced over the top of it. Some stores backmask subliminal messages to try to control shoplifting. Some motivation tapes also usesubliminal. As one friend told me, "I use subliminal on my tapes. I don't think it works, but maybe it does." 4 and 5. Touch and taste. I guess you could make surfaces with touches that would convey informationsubliminally. I have never heard of any subliminal touching. Places like McDonald's make sure that food items feeland taste good in the mouth.