Variability arises when you observe more than one personoOne person = no variabilityDoes this question have variability?Is Dr. Fulton in this classroom right now?Hint: you are asking one person: ME
No, because asking one personObserving one personHow many classes do you have today?This has variability because asking a lot of peopleDiffering answersHow much does my pet weigh?To clarify: you have your pet zebra at home, you ask how much does my pet zebra weigh?NoWhat is the average # of students in a class at PSU?Yes it’s a variable questionLot of different classesFundamentals of Sociological Methods°I. Concepts and Variablesa. Concept: a mental image that groups together a set of similarObservationsFeelingsIdeasConcept: Gendera.Groups different characteristics of a personb.Makeup, long hair [feminine]
c.Hawk-like nose, tattoos, skateboardb.Variable: a logical collection of attributes (values)c.Attributes:The valuesa variable can taked.Operationalize:List the steps you take to turn a concept into a measurable variable For simple concepts, simply list the attributesExample: Operationalize Gendera.Concept: Genderb.Variable: Genderc. Attributes:i.Masculineii.Feminineiii.TGQNNike, reebok, adidas can all be considered attributes of the variable tennis shoe brands°II. Independent and DependentIndependent VariableoA Cause- causes something to happen“What causes people to smoke weed”oSomething that influences something elseDependent VariableoA result- the result of something happeningoInfluenced by something°Higher education causes higher incomeIndependent: educationDependent: income°III. Direction of RelationshipAs education increases, income increases: Positive Relationship because both arrows point in same direction °IV. Hypothesis°°Distribution: The number of cases at each attribute of a variable °Case: the unit being studied°CaseVariableAttributePersonBeers per Week82°University°Graduation Rate°82%PersonGPA2.7°University°Percent in state°75%°°°
°°Elementary schools in PA annually report each child’s BMI to the child’sparents. The children in one elementary school are weighed by a nurse. The nurse weighs a child named Sarah Lu. Here, Sarah Lu is the case. Because she is the person being studied°Turns out Sarah Lu weighs 48 pounds. Here “48” is one of many possible attributes. °°Univariate TableOne VariableDescribes the distribution of cases across the attributes of one variable°Percent“Per centum” which means out of 100A percent is a fraction which we convert to a fraction of 100We use them so we can compare different-sized groups (with different denominators) °°Bivariate Table“Two variable”analyzing 2 variableDescribes the distribution of cases across the attributes of one variable for two different groupsDisplays whether independent variable affects dependent variable.