Variability arises when you observe more than one person o One person no

# Variability arises when you observe more than one

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Variability arises when you observe more than one person o One person = no variability Does this question have variability? Is Dr. Fulton in this classroom right now? Hint: you are asking one person: ME
No, because asking one person Observing one person How many classes do you have today? This has variability because asking a lot of people Differing answers How much does my pet weigh? To clarify: you have your pet zebra at home, you ask how much does my pet zebra weigh? No What is the average # of students in a class at PSU? Yes it’s a variable question Lot of different classes Fundamentals of Sociological Methods ° I. Concepts and Variables a. Concept: a mental image that groups together a set of similar Observations Feelings Ideas Concept: Gender a. Groups different characteristics of a person b. Makeup, long hair [feminine]
c. Hawk-like nose, tattoos, skateboard b. Variable: a logical collection of attributes (values) c. Attributes: The values a variable can take d. Operationalize: List the steps you take to turn a concept into a measurable variable For simple concepts, simply list the attributes Example: Operationalize Gender a. Concept: Gender b. Variable: Gender c. Attributes: i. Masculine ii. Feminine iii. TGQN Nike, reebok, adidas can all be considered attributes of the variable tennis shoe brands ° II. Independent and Dependent Independent Variable o A Cause- causes something to happen “What causes people to smoke weed” o Something that influences something else Dependent Variable o A result- the result of something happening o Influenced by something ° Higher education causes higher income Independent: education Dependent: income ° III. Direction of Relationship As education increases, income increases: Positive Relationship because both arrows point in same direction ° IV. Hypothesis ° ° Distribution: The number of cases at each attribute of a variable ° Case: the unit being studied ° Case Variable Attribute Person Beers per Week 82 ° Universi ty ° Graduation Rate ° 82% Person GPA 2.7 ° Universi ty ° Percent in state ° 75% ° ° °
° ° Elementary schools in PA annually report each child’s BMI to the child’s parents. The children in one elementary school are weighed by a nurse. The nurse weighs a child named Sarah Lu. Here, Sarah Lu is the case. Because she is the person being studied ° Turns out Sarah Lu weighs 48 pounds. Here “48” is one of many possible attributes. ° ° Univariate Table One Variable Describes the distribution of cases across the attributes of one variable ° Percent “Per centum” which means out of 100 A percent is a fraction which we convert to a fraction of 100 We use them so we can compare different-sized groups (with different denominators) ° ° Bivariate Table “Two variable” analyzing 2 variable Describes the distribution of cases across the attributes of one variable for two different groups Displays whether independent variable affects dependent variable.