Lewy bodies, have been spotted on neurons in basal ganglia, brainstem, spinal cord, and sympathetic ganglia (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). To further clarify the mono-amine-containing cell, refers to the neurotransmitters dopamine (regulator of movement and cognitive process) norepinephrine (mediator of cardiovascular effects, arousal, concentration, attention, learning and memory), serotonin (regulator of smooth muscle function, blood pressure regulator, and peripheral and CNC neurotransmission) (Australian Government Department of Health, 2004). Five genes have been identified in familial PD for a total of 5%. The genes identified are a- synuclein (PARK1), parkin (PARK2), DJ-1 (Park7), ubiquitin-C-hydrolase-L1 (PARK5, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10), induced kinase 1 (PINK1, and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) (Hammer & McPhee, 2014).
A potent neurotoxin MPTP is identified in the pathogenesis of PD. MPTP is known to injure dopaminergic neuron in the brain producing similar syndrome-like symptoms of PD (Hammer & McPhee, 2014).
- Fall '17
- keisha lovence