rigid because we are familiar with our own groups& we appreciate differences among members o Stereotypes persist because even incorrect stereotypes help process info about others quickly 1 It’s easier to rely on false stereotypes than discover true nature of targets. 2 Inaccurate stereotypes are reinforced by selective perception & application of language language is twisted to turn neutral info into unfavourable stereotypes; ex: “reserved” = “snobby” Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives Attribution: process where causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour Dispositional attributions: explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality / intellect Situational attributions: explanations for behaviour based on an external situation/ environment 8
1 Consistency cues : Does he engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? o Def.: Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time o Consistency = dispositional attributions; inconsistency makes us consider situational attributions 2 Consensus cues: do most people engage in the behaviour or is it unique to this person? o Def.: attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others o Low-consensus behaviour = dispositional attribution, since it shows “true motives” 3 Distinctiveness cues: extent to which he engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations o Low distinctiveness (occurs across many situations), it means dispositional attribution Attribution in Action Highly consistent, low consensus, and not distinctive : Bob is absent a lot, his co-workers are never absent, and she was absent in previous jobs this is his personality (disposition ) Highly consistent, high consensus, and distinctive : Sam is absent a lot, co-workers are also absent a lot, but she was never absent in previous jobs it’s a trend in this workplace ( situation) Inconsistent, high consensus, and not distinctive: Mike is absent never, his co-workers are absent never, & he was never absent in previous jobs external factor ( temporary situation) Biases in Attribution Various cue combinations usually lead to correct attributions (but not always), but there’s bias Fundamental Attribution Error: overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations (but social roles affect behaviour)! o less likely when manager has actual experience in that specific job Actor-observer effect: tendency for actors & observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently (AKA they disagree on the true causes of the act) o As observers of similar behaviour in others, we’re likely to invoke dispositional causes o Actors are prone to attribute their own behaviour to situations because they’re more aware than observers of the constraints/advantages and aware of their own thoughts and intentions Self-serving bias:
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