Database-19-QueryProcessing.pptx

# 4 using rule 12 combine a cartesian product operation

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4. Using Rule 12, combine a Cartesian product operation with a subsequent select operation in the tree into a join operation. 5. Using rules 3, 4, 7, and 11 concerning the cascading of project and the commuting of project with other operations, break down and move lists of projection attributes down the tree as far as possible by creating new project operations as needed. 6. Identify subtrees that represent groups of operations that can be executed by a single algorithm. Query Processing and Optimization 48

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Using Heuristics in Query Optimization Summary of Heuristics for Algebraic Optimization: 1. The main heuristic is to apply first the operations that reduce the size of intermediate results. 2. Perform select operations as early as possible to reduce the number of tuples and perform project operations as early as possible to reduce the number of attributes. (This is done by moving select and project operations as far down the tree as possible.) 3. The select and join operations that are most restrictive should be executed before other similar operations. (This is done by reordering the leaf nodes of the tree among themselves and adjusting the rest of the tree appropriately.) Query Processing and Optimization 49
Using Heuristics in Query Optimization Query Execution Plans An execution plan for a relational algebra query consists of a combination of the relational algebra query tree and information about the access methods to be used for each relation as well as the methods to be used in computing the relational operators stored in the tree. Materialized evaluation : the result of an operation is stored as a temporary relation. Pipelined evaluation : as the result of an operator is produced, it is forwarded to the next operator in sequence. Query Processing and Optimization 50

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Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization Cost-based query optimization : Estimate and compare the costs of executing a query using different execution strategies and choose the strategy with the lowest cost estimate. (Compare to heuristic query optimization) Issues Cost function Number of execution strategies to be considered Query Processing and Optimization 51
Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization Cost Components for Query Execution 1. Access cost to secondary storage 2. Storage cost 3. Computation cost 4. Memory usage cost 5. Communication cost Note: Different database systems may focus on different cost components. Query Processing and Optimization 52

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Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization Catalog Information used in Cost Functions Information about the size of a file number of records (tuples) (r), record size (R), number of blocks (b) blocking factor (bfr) Information about indexes and indexing attributes of a file Number of levels (x) of each multilevel index Number of first-level index blocks (bI1) Number of distinct values (d) of an attribute Selectivity (sl) of an attribute Selection cardinality (s) of an attribute. (s = sl * r) Query Processing and Optimization 53
Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT S1. Linear search (brute force) approach

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• Fall '09
• SUNANHAN
• Query optimizer, JOIN Operations

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