High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) – remove excess cholesterol from body cells and the blood and transport it to the liver for elimination. Prevents accumulation of cholesterol in the blood. 72. Explain the role of the following hormones in the metabolism regulation: insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and testosterone. Insulin - stimulates lipogenesis Glucagon - stimulates glycogenolysis maintains glucose level of blood when you’re not eating. Epinephrine - helps stimulate lipolysis. Thyroid hormone - stimulates catabolic reactions & energy production. Increase sensitivity to other hormones. Cortisol - helps stimulate lipolysis. Testosterone - stimulates anabolic reaction (muscle growth) and bone reabsorption. 73. Absorptive vs. post-absorptive state: which hormones predominate in each, and what is happening to glucose and fats in the body? Absorptive state : Insulin dominates in the absorptive state. In increases the activity of enzymes needed for anabolism and the synthesis of storage molecules; at the same time it decreases the activity of enzymes needed for catabolic or breakdown reactions.
Post absorptive state : Glucagon is the dominant. Glycogenosis is broke glycogen to make glucose. Gluconeogenesis and lipolysis which is the breakdown of fat into the blood. 74. Make a list of major minerals and vitamins that our bodies need. Minerals : Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium, Iron, Iodide, Manganese, Copper, Cobalt, Zinc, Fluoride, Selenium, and Chromium. Vitamin : Fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K). Water-soluble (B & C) Antioxidants (C, E, and beta carotene). 75. Lipolysis and lipogenesis; glycogenesis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis - explain what happens in each process, and in which organ(s) each can occur. Lipolysis - breaking down fat. In cells that store fat (adipose cells and liver cells). Lipogenesis - when fat is synthesized. In cells that store fat (adipose cell & liver cells). Glycogenesis - is the synthesis of glycogen. Liver & skeletal muscle fibers. Glycogenolysis - is the process of splitting glycogen into its glucose subunits. Liver & skeletal muscle fibers. Gluconeogenesis - is the process by which glucose is formed form these noncarbohydrate sources. Happens in liver & kidney. Urinary system and fluid/electrolyte balance 76. List the anatomical parts of the urinary system. Two kidneys, two ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. 77. List all functions of kidneys. Regulation of blood ionic composition, blood pH, blood volume, blood pressure, blood glucose level. Maintenance of blood osmolarity. Production of hormones. Excretion of wastes and foreign substances (secretes erythroproteins). 78. Composition of urine: what are the waste products that kidney normally excretes and which molecules you will never find in urine in a healthy person? What do we evaluate in urinalysis test? Excreted: Water, protein, Na, Cl, HCO3-, Urea, K+, Uric acid, Creatinine.
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