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Empire in early fourteenth centurya. probably originated in Central Asiab. carried by rodents and transmitted by fleas2. the plague broke out in northeastern China in 1331a. reached Western Europe by 1347b. Mongol siege of Caffa (in the Crimea) in 1346: Mongols catapulted plague-c. massive death tolli. estimates are that one-third to two-thirds of European population diedd. periodic returns of the plague for centuriesinfected corpses into city3. India and sub-Saharan Africa were much less affected4. best information about the plague’s impact comes from Europea. the plague was described in apocalyptic termsb. Jews blamed for the plague; many fled to Polandc. longer-term changes in European societyi. led to conflict between scarce workers and the richii. undermined practice of serfdomiii. perhaps encouraged technological innovationiv. created more employment opportunities for women5. the plague was a primary reason for the breakdown of the Mongol Empire in fourteenth–fifteenth centuries6. disruption of land routes to the east encouraged Europeans to seek trade routes by seawho were economically less developed and forcibly plundered wealthier civilizationsVI. Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples A. Nomads have often received “bad press” in history books.1. only mentioned in regard to their destruction of established civilizations2. educated sedentary peoples have feared and usually despised nomads3. nomads were usually illiterate, so we don’t have their perspective4. agricultural societies eventually won outB. There have been recent efforts to present a more balanced view.1. emphasize what nomads achieved as well as what they destroyed2. the total wars and genocides of the twentieth century have made people less judgmental toward the Mongols3. historians are shaped by their times