Interest in infants rough and tumble play physical

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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 33
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified
Interest in infants-Rough-and-tumble play-Physical aggressionGrowing evidence that sex differences result from epigenetic process of sexual differentiationMany differences apparent early in development prior to “socialization”Gonadal hormones likely involved in children’s gender rolesCAHCongenital adrenal hyperplasia over active adrenal glandsFetal adrenal glands secrete high levels of androgensMasculinization of femalesGender rolesCAH girls exhibit-Masculinized toy preferences-Prefer male playmates-“Tomboyism”-Reduced rehearsal play as caregiver-Reduced interest in infants-Reduced interest in physical appearance-Increased aggression-Masculinized childhood drawingsConsistent with hypothesis that early hormone exposure affects sex differences in personalityEffects of ParentingDo parents matter at all?Social DevelopmentParent offspring correlations have been assumed by SSSM as evidence that parenting is importantCannot dissociate genetic and environmental contributions-Shared home-Shared genesHeritability: The amount of variability we see in a population that we can equate to genetic variation can never be applied to an individual, only a populationMeasurements: pedigrees analysis, comparing identical (monozygotic) twins vs. fraternal (dizygotic) twins, selective breeding experiments, parents offspring correlationsBehavioural Genetic ApproachesPartition variance into effects-Shared genes-Shared environments-Unique environments friends outside the home, teachers, etc.
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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 33
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified
Typically effects of shared environment are tremendously small when effects of genes controlled IQ - 45% genes, 45% unique environment, 10% shared environments Caveat word of warningHeritability estimates are environment specificDo NOT indicate a trait is X% geneticHeritability means the proportion of variance accounted for by genetic variationGroup Socialization TheoryJudith Harris – proposes that after genes, next largest factor is peer group, not family (e.g. language learning in immigrants)Is peer leaning an adaptation?Potential benefits of attending to peers rather than adults-Younger individuals are the most innovative-Learning from peers increases variation in knowledge-Parents may or may not be around in the future-Parents and offspring often have conflicting interestsAt this point theory is still contentious-Large genetic contribution unequivocal-Effects of shared and unshared environment awaiting studyGroup Socialization versus Parental InfluenceWhy not both?Belsky argues for individual variationDifferential susceptibility to rearingUnpredictable environments-attend less to parents, more to peersStable environments-Use parents to direct developmentDifferential SusceptibilityCaspi et al. found variation among Monoamine oxidase A genotypes, and propensity for antisocial behavior following maltreatment MAOA is important in neurotransmitter inactivation

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