Study Guide abnormal Exam 3 review

Dsm iv tr identifies five subtypes paranoid delusions

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DSM-IV-TR identifies five subtypes: Paranoid Delusions and hallucinations that are limited to specific topics with a coherent paranoid or grandiose theme Usually relatively intact cognitive and emotional functioning Has the best recovery rate, but is associated with the most with aggressive behavior Disorganized Disorganized speech and behavior and inappropriate emotional expression Catatonic Stiff or “frozen” postures or poses, bizarre jerky movements, or frozen facial expressions Undifferentiated Symptoms that do not completely match those specified for the paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic subtype
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Residual Given when positive and disorganized symptoms have subsided but the negative symptoms persist Know the brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia, and irregularities in dopamine functioning. Cognitive deficits Difficulties in sustaining and focusing attention Working memory (short-term memory and a set of executive processes that operate on that information) is adversely affected Difficulty with executive functioning planning, organizing, problem solving, abstract thinking, and exercising good judgment For many, cognitive deficits existed in childhood, long before first episode of schizophrenia Deficits persist even when positive symptoms lessen or stop Know the 1/3 1/3 1/3 long-term prognosis for those diagnosed with schizophrenia - Long term prognosis follows the rule of thirds- 1/3 improve, 1/3 stay the same and 1/3 never improve/chronically & severly disabled. What brain structural abnormality has been commonly observed in people with schizophrenia? What does it imply about the amount of brain tissue? How may “pruning” of neural connections go wrong in schizophrenia? - There are enlarged ventricles which means brain tissues are reduced and before, brain was smaller. - Frontal lobe defect- excessive pruning in adolescence Know the findings about size abnormalities in the temporal lobes and thalamus in schizophrenia, and how this may influence symptoms. Impaired temporal lobes and thalamus Decreased size of temporal lobes, abnormal function Process auditory information, language, and visual recognition May underlie some positive symptoms, notably auditory hallucinations Thalamus also appears smaller and functions abnormally Transmits sensory information to other parts of the brain Problems focusing attention, filtering irrelevant stimuli Interactions among Brain areas May have disrupted interactions among frontal lobes, thalamus, cerebellum (cerebellum should synchronize, coordinate signals from brain areas) Thalamus fails to filter sensory information What events during pregnancy can increase the likelihood that the child will grow up to develop schizophrenia? Possible causes of brain abnormalities Maternal malnourishment during first trimester of pregnancy Maternal illness during 6 th month of pregnancy (“season of birth effect”) May disrupt cell migration in the fetus’s brain, causing neurons to fall short of their intended destinations Prenatal or birth-related oxygen deprivation Know in general what the dopamine hypothesis is, and the evidence for and against it.
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