DSST Astronomy

# In 1851 a french physicist named jean foucault proved

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In 1851, a French physicist named Jean Foucault proved that the Earth rotates through the use of a ______________. xplanation: Pendulum. Foucault suspended a 200 feet pendulum weighing 60 pounds from the domed ceiling of the Pantheon in Paris. He started the pendulum swinging evenly and the direction of swing of the pendulum was recorded on a ring of sand placed on a table beneath its point of suspension. At the end of each swing, a pointed stylus attached to the bottom cut a notch in the sand. After a few moments, the plane of oscillation of the pendulum was slowly changing with respect to the ring of sand, and hence, with respect to the Earth. A Foucalt Pendulum at the North Pole The _____________ effect is any apparent deflection in the motion of a body resulting from the Earth's rotation. Explanation: Coriolis. Any object moving freely over the surface of the Earth appears to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere because of the rotation of the Earth beneath it. The graphic below illustrates the Coriolis effect on a projectile launched from the North Pole towards the equator:

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The Coriolis effect can be seen in weather, where it affects the movement of winds (causing them to take curved paths instead of going straight) and its effects can be most obviously seen in large systems such as hurricanes. The Earth's ____________ is a great circle on the Earth's surface halfway between the North and South Poles. Explanation: Equator. A great circle is any circle on the surface of a sphere whose center is at the center of the sphere. The equator is such a circle. There is also a series of imaginary great circles that pass through the North and South Poles called _____________. Explanation: Meridians. These circles intersect the equator at right angles and can be used to specifiy the east-west location of that place. The ______________ of a place is the number of degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc along the equator between the meridian passing through the place and the one passing through Greenwich, England (the Prime Meridian), the site of the old Royal Observatory. Explanation: Longitude. The measurement for longitude is either to the east or west of the Greenwich meridian from 0° to 180° The ____________ of a specific location is the number of degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc measured along its meridian starting at the equator. Explanation: Latitude. Latitudes are measured either to the north or south of the equator from 0° to 90°.
As you can see in the image above, latitude lines are horizontal; they measure how far a location is north or south of the equator. Longitude lines are vertical; they measure how far a location is east or west of the prime meridian in Greenwich, England. In denoting positions of objects in the sky, it is often convenient to make use of the fictitious _____________ sphere, a concept that earlier observers accepted literally.

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