study a group people over a long period of time to determine which factors may be associated with the appearance of a specific condition This is a prospective study —> you go ahead (stronger in terms of validity ), don’t need to remember about recall • Ex: EPIC (european perspective investigational to cancer study) —> involving 520,000 people in 10 European countries suggests that increase intake of fruits and vegetables has a minimal effect on cancer rates - Important point between both, is that in the case control study people had developed a certain condition, whereas in the cohort study, at the onset of the study there is no indication of any problem Correlation vs. Causation - when it comes to epidemiological studies, they give us a relation, a link —> but does not prove causation INTERVENTIONAL STUDY: assignment of subjects is controlled by the investigator (stronger) - Ex: first study goes back to the bible in the book of Daniel —> gave vegetable and water and compared to another group - Ex: Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation —> has a 60% reduction in cancer incidence - Double blind randomized placebo-controlled study = GOLDEN STANDARD PLACEBO RESPONSE: people believe that something they take is beneficial, so they feel better just because of that BLIND STUDY: divide group into 2. 1 of them getting active substance, and the other getting a placebo - Subject in the 2 groups do not know whether they are taking placebo or active substance DOUBLE BLIND STUDY : prevents researcher from having an influence on the study - Important that people in the study and researcher do not know which one is which RANDOMIZED: the people in the 2 groups must be picked randomly so that there aren’t any co- founding factors that can relate to the results META ANALYSIS: looks at a number of studies and pool them together and determine results - Ex: looked at 60 observational studies involving Vitamin D and cancer risk. There is a protective relationship between vitamin D and cancer of 22 78
CHEM 181: Food Winter 2019 TOPIC 2: MICRONUTRIENTS (VITAMINS) LESSON 1: VITAMINS I VIDEO 1 VITAMIN : nutrients needed in small amount to prevent deficiency disease - a balanced diet contains all the vitamins I the required amounts - Total of 13 vitamins • Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K • Water soluble vitamins: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12 FRANCOIS MAGENDIE: - he was intrigued with food and did some simple experiments - He took a dog and fed It nothing but sugar —> it expired the 32nd day of the experiment - Can a single food sustain life? • Thought of bone broth —> idea was to find something to feed to nourished people • GELATIN in the bone broth • Cannot sustain life but is still pretty popular • It is very low in vitamins —> this is why it cannot sustain life BERIBERI : translate into “i cannot, I cannot” —> causes people to become crippled and virtually cannot do anything - DR. CHRISTIAN EIJKMAN was interested in this disease - This is a time where germs were being talked about -
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