Legions increasingly manned by citizens from the

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and propagate their own customs. Legions increasingly manned by citizens from the provinces (though Italians continue to be over represented in command) auxiliary veterans receive citizenship Trade and other economic activity is also an important engine for circulation In the eastern provinces, roman rule is layered over a strong pre-existing tradition of urban life. Greek: language of admin but other languages/traditions continue Authors from this region: Flavius Josephus (1st c CE, from Jerusalem, wrote in Aramaic and Greek), Lucian (2nd c CE, from Samosata, on the Euphrates, probably originally a speaker of Aramaic but his varied output is all in Greek) Western euro provinces- less urbanism except in parts of spain and s france, so the foundation of towns on the distinctive roman pattern has more visible effect. Latin is the lingua franca and increasingly dominates over celtic and others Examples of authors in this region: Tacitus (1st/2nd c CE, born in Gaul, writes in Latin), Spanish writers in the 1st/2nd c CEm including Martial, writer of short, funny, raunchy epigrams, Elder Seneca, teacher of oratory, Younger Seneca, philosopher and dramatist, Lucan, an epic on civil war between pompey and caesar
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North african provinces include important cities, esp Carthage and Lepcis Magna, and agricultural lands; semitic and other languages continue to be used here alongside latin Examples of authors from here: Apuleius (2nd c CE from Madaura, educated Greek/Latin but his writings are all in Latin), Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (4th-5th c from Thagaste; knew Punic and Latin, only writes in Latin) Provincial Admin Romans apply various kinds of settlements to the territory they acquire through conquest, think back to patchwork of statuses before social war Provinces are territories most fully incorporated into the roman state, governed by senatorial gov or leagues of the emperor, sometimes can procurators, equestrian status More ambiguous, still largely controlled by rome are territories governed by client kings, ie local rulers who govern in cooperation with Rome, a more visible form of using local intermediaries for imperial rule Two major concerns: frontiers and taxation Mid 1st c BCE, emphasis shifted from expansion to stabilizing frontiers and ensuring smooth operation of civil admin, trade, and collecting taxes All provinces outside of Italy had to pay taxes (even Roman citizens living in those areas); taxes on goods in transit were also collected at ports. Client kingdoms also paid various kinds of tribute and required to provide aux troops Roman admin tends to minimize personnel and resources from the center in favor of using local intermediaries Expansion in this period: driven by desire to stabilize frontier w natural boundary Frontiers further protected by walls, garrisons, colonies Famous roman system of roads operates to facilitate the movement of armies and traders but also increases circulation of people and goods and stands as
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