3 cognitive learning learning something by acquiring

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3. Cognitive learning – learning something by acquiring information, interpreting and evaluating it, and then taking action on the basis of the acquired knowledge. Types of cognitive learning: o Iconic rote learning – learning the association between 2 or more concepts in the absence of conditioning o Vicarious learning or modelling – observing the outcomes of others’ behaviours and adjusting our own accordingly. o Reasoning – individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing and new information to form new associations and concepts. Study unit 8 – Customer motivation Nature of motivation: o Motivation = when a customer wants to satisfy a need that has arisen. o Need = something physical or psychological that the body must have to function and develop. Types of needs: Innate needs – physiological and help to sustain biological life Acquired needs – those we learn in response to our culture and environment Utilitarian – person wants to achieve some functional or practical benefit Hedonistic – pleasant emotional responses or fantasies o Need arousal – types of needs arousal: Physiological arousal – usually involuntary, stimulus come from inside (hunger). Emotional arousal – thinking results in the arousal or stimulation of latent (unconscious) needs. Cognitive arousal – triggered by a stimulus in the environment. Something triggers thoughts in a person that will result in a cognitive awareness of needs (Telkom add). Environmental arousal – needs determined by specific cues in the environment. o Once a need is aroused, it produces a drive state – affective state in which a person experiences emotions and physiological arousal. Classification of motives (needs): o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Based on 3 premises: i. All humans adopt a set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction ii. Some motives are more basic than others 15
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iii. The most basic motives need to be satisfied to a minimum level before other, more advanced motives. Needs in the Maslow hierarchy: i. Physiological needs – water, sleep, food: Most prominent motives. Human behaviour will be primarily directed at satisfaction of these needs. ii. Safety – security, shelter, protection: e.g. Volvo’s promotion of safety. iii. Belonging – love, friendship, acceptance: Buying of gifts, participating in group activities iv. Ego needs – prestige, status, accomplishment: 2 subgroups – firstly self-respect and self-esteem, secondly, need for respect and approval by others. Driving a car that reflects who we are. v. Self-actualisation – self-fulfilment, enriching experiences Self-improvement. Hobbies, travel, education. Segmentation based on hierarchy: i. Segmentation applications – add appeals are directed based on market segmentation on need levels.
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