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: Assessments performed before an ad campaign is implemented to ensure that the various elements are working in an integrated fashion and doing what they are intended to do. Tracking: Includes monitoring key indicators, such as daily or weekly sales volume, while the advertisement is running to shed light on any problems with the message or the medium. Posttesting: The evaluation of an IMC campaign's impact after it has been implemented. Puffery: The legal exaggeration of praise, stopping just short of deception, lavished on a product. The FTC is the primary enforcement agency for most mass media advertising.Public Relations (PR): The organizational function that manages the firm's communications to achieve a variety of objectives, including building and maintaining a positive image, handling or heading off unfavorable stories or events, and maintaining positive relationships with the media. Cause-Related Marketing: Commercial activity in which businesses and charities form a partnership to market an image, a product, or a service for their mutual benefit;a type of promotional campaign. Event Sponsorship: Popular PR tool; occurs when corporations support various activities (financially or otherwise), usually in the cultural or sports and entertainmentsectors.Sales Promotions: Special incentives or excitement-buildingprograms that encourage the purchase of a product or service,such as coupons, rebates, contests, free samples, and point-of-purchase displays. Coupons: Provides a stated discount toconsumers on the final selling price of a specific item; the retailerhandles the discount. Deal: A type of short-term price reductionthat can take several forms, such as a “featured price,” a price lower than the regular price; a “buy one, get one free” offer; or a certain percentage “morefree” offer contained in larger packaging; can involve a special financing arrangement, such as reduced percentage interest rates or extended repaymentterms. Premium: An item offered for free or at a bargain price to reward some type of behavior, such as buying, sampling, or testing. Contest: A brand-sponsored competition that requires some form of skill or effort. Sweepstakes: A form of sales promotion that offers prizes based on a chance drawing of entrants' names. Sampling: Offers potential customers the opportunity to try a product or service before they make a buying decision. Loyalty Programs: Specifically designed to retain customers by offering premiums or other incentives to customers who make multiple purchases over time. Point-of-Purchase (POP) Displays: A merchandise display located at the point of purchase, such as at the checkout counter in a grocery store. Rebates: A consumer discount in which a portion of the purchase price is returned to the buyer in cash; the manufacturer, not the retailer, issues the refund. Product Placement: Inclusion of a product in nontraditional situations, such as in a scene in a movie or television program. Cross-Promoting: Efforts of two or more firms joining together to reach a specific target market.