And some types of errors don't happen on all kinds of units ▫ Shifts & Strands happen only with Function Morphemes ▫ But all other errors are far more common on Content Morphemes • These patterns provide clues about how production works
Rev Spooner at work fighting a liar lighting a fire you hissed my mystery lecture you missed my history lecture cattle ships and bruisers battle ships and cruisers nosey little cook cosy little nook a blushing crow a crushing blow 87 tons of soil sons of toil our queer old Dean our dear old Queen we'll have the hags flung out we'll have the flags hung out you've tasted two worms you've wasted two terms our shoving leopard our loving shepherd a half-warmed fish a half-formed wish is the bean dizzy? is the Dean busy?
Slips of the hand • 131 signing errors 77 from videotapes of conversational narrative signing 54 from reported observations from researchers 88 98 were judged by the signers themselves as being deviant from the intended signs (immediate self- correction 43 or later reported during review 55) Not articulatory assimilation or lapses in muscle control or individual mannerisms
Modalities of Perception Speech Signing Ears - auditory Eyes - visual (& tactile?) Omni-directional Subscribed visual angle Speech concentrated in certain Foveal vs. peripheral vision; frequencies of human hearing cones and rods Distance limits? Barriers? Noise? Darkness? Distance limits? Barriers? Noise? Darkness? Speaker’s voice competes with addressee’s voice Signer and addressee can overlap without apparent conflict 103
What is signing? Signing is • A mode of producing and perceiving specific primary human languages, ASL ≠BSL; ASL ≠ LSF • Different sign languages are not mutually intelligible to native signers 104 • Not transparent to non-signers, but perhaps more obviously iconic than (most) spoken languages • Capable of all expression available to other modes of human language • Meets the duality of patterning criterion for human languages
Sign writing 105
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