We might not even use the same number of routers its

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routers each time. We might not even use the same number of routers. It's possible that one traceroute uses four routers and the next traceroute uses five or six. By using traceroute, we can create a map between two points and identify the routers that arecrossed to reach a specific destination. This allows us to identify where a connection fault may be. For example, let's say a ping to one of our remote computers fails, this doesn't tell us much. We don't know if it's a problem with our network here or the remote network.
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So we instead use the traceroute utility and find out that the ICMP packets fail after the second router hop. This tells us that the problem is somewhere between these two points. Ipconfig/Ifconfig 3:52-4:52 Next let's look at the ipconfig utility. The ipconfig utility is used by Windows systems to obtain TCPIP configuration information. When you use the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway of the primary Ethernet adapter will be displayed. This is useful when troubleshooting network connections.By using this utility you can quickly identify whether or not the Ethernet adapter is configured properly. For example, if you were to run ipconfig and the IP address started with 169.254 you would know that APIPA's being used and there is a problem with DHCP. Either the server is down or the host isn't able to contact it. Or let's say maybe the network uses a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 but the output from ipconfig is 255.255.255.0. This tells you the subnet mask is configured incorrectly. On Mac OS and Linux systems, the ifconfig is used to display TCPIP configuration information. Nslookup 4:53-5:26 The next utility we'll learn about is called nslookup. The syntax for using the nslookup utility is nslookup followed by a domain name such as google.com. When used, nslookup displays DNS server information and the IP address that the server has resolved to the specific domain name. If an IP address is used, nslookup returns the domain name associated with the specific IP address. This utility is used to test two things. First, it tests that the DNS server is reachable, second it tests if domain names are resolving properly. Netdom 5:27-5:46 The last utility we're going to talk about is netdom. Netdom is a Windows administration tool that istypically only used on a server running Windows Server 2008 or newer. It allows a network administrator to add hosts to active directory domains from the command line. If netdom is installed on a host, it can be used to join the host to a specified active directory domain. Summary 5:47-6:11 As you can, these TCPIP utilities are an invaluable addition to your troubleshooting toolbox. By understanding how each of these utilities work, you can use them to troubleshoot practically any networking issues. And remember, ipconfig and tracert are used on Windows systems. On Linux and Mac OS systems, the commands are ifconfig and traceroute. The functionality of both is the same but the command syntax is different.
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