6 evaluate your options taking into account their

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6) Evaluate your options, taking into account their advantages and disadvantages in the situation you are in. 7) Adopt a strategic approach to the problem and follow through on that strategy. This may involve direct action or a carefully thought-through wait- and-see strategy. 8) When you act, monitor the implications of your action as they begin to emerge. Be ready at a moment’s notic e to revise your strategy if the situation requires it. Be prepared to shift your strategy or your analysis or statement of the problem, or all three, as more information about the problem becomes available to you. 3) INTERNALIZE INTELLECTUAL STANDARDS Each week, develop a heightened awareness of one of the universal intellectual standards (clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, depth, breadth, logicalness, significance). Focus one week on clarity, the next on accuracy, etc. For example, if you are focusing on clarity for the week, try to notice when you are being unclear in communicating with others. Notice when others are unclear in what they are saying. When you are reading, notice whether you are clear about what you are reading. When you orally express or write out your views (for whatever reason), ask yourself whether you are clear about what you are trying to say. In doing this, of course, focus on four techniques of clarification: 1) Stating what you are saying explicitly and precisely (with careful consideration given to your choice of words), 2) Elaborating on your meaning in other words, 3) Giving examples of what you mean from experiences you have had. 4) Using analogies, metaphors, pictures, or diagrams to illustrate what you mean. 4) KEEP AN INTELLECTUAL JOURNAL Each week, write out a certain number of journal entries. Use the following format (keeping each numbered stage separate): 1) Situation. Describe a situation that is, or was, emotionally significant to you (that is, that you deeply care about). Focus on one situation at a time. 2) Your Response. Describe what you did in response to that situation. Be specific and exact.
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92 3) Analysis. Then analyze, in the light of what you have written, what precisely was going on in the situation. Dig beneath the surface. 4) Assessment. Assess the implications of your analysis. What did you learn about yourself? What would you do differently if you could re-live the situation? 5) RESHAPE YOUR CHARACTER Choose one intellectual trait---intellectual perseverance, autonomy, empathy, courage, humility, etc., to strive for each month, focusing on how you can develop that trait in yourself. For example, concentrating on intellectual humility, begin to notice when you admit you are wrong. Notice when you refuse to admit you are wrong, even in the face of glaring evidence that you are in fact wrong. Notice when you become defensive when another person tries to point out a deficiency in your work, or your thinking. Notice when your intellectual arrogance keeps you from learning, for example, when you say to yourself “I already know everything I need to know about this subject.” Or, “I know as much as he does. Who does he think he is forcing his
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