Lived in avignon during the avignon papacy period

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Lived in Avignon during the Avignon papacy- period considered to be a period of corruption and significant ciriticm of the catholic church. Once he left the clergy and embracedhumanism he wrote Letters to the Ancient dead, Lives of Industrious Men, Letters to Laura: Letters & biographies to and abt classical politicians, historians, poets consisting of questions and answers. Asking questions to ancient dead and responding to questions by looking at the actual works which they produced to better understand classical period and what the future could look like after the lessons were learned. Letters to Laura: (poems): Describe the fact that he could love her froma distance without needing a physical intimate rlationshuip with her(platonic). She dies of plague and forced him to ponder ignorance and injustice and inhumanity of medieval period Produced editions of ancient texts (livy, vergil, cicero): recovering works that had been suppressed bythe church in order to recover the writings and make them available to the new humanists in the universities - Students of Humanism : giovanni Boccaccio (decameron, 1370), geoffrey Chaucer (Canterbury Tales 1390s) : both discuss failures, downfalls of mankind, satirical, wanted to suggest beauty in man’s flaws and embrace imperfections - Decameron was 100 tales told by young ppl who had fled Florence during the black death- canterbury tales is a series of stories abt triumph and failure e - Christine de Pisan: the city of ladies (1404) & Margerie Kempe (Book of Margery kempe: 1430s) - Become students of humanism, well educated, writing about moral instruction to other women on their virtue and important role in society as the basis of morality, as mothers, as wives etc. - Leonardo Bruni, Francois Rabelais, Lorenzo Valla : emphasizes humanist education, helped develop the studia humanitatus, Valla emphasizes need for 7
true historical scholarship using proper classical latin rather than the form of latin commonly used by catholic church, - Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino: explain nature of mankind, branch of philosophy Neoplatonism, examined ability of man to become great or small depending on his personal ability rather than on his rank & privilege in society, - Baldassare Castiglione: Book of the Courtier: characteristics of a proper politician and emphasized idea of gentlemen being well educated and informed to provide active public service. Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) - Dutch, Cambridge professor, Christian humanism, exemplification of the movement towards the study of humanities in uni, satirized superstition in his works, criticized clerical ignorance, the clergy is not being very well trained for their work, and believes this resultsi n corruption of the church and society. He recovered Greek version of the new testament, more superior form than the vulgate bible of which he was highly critical. Founder of Christian humanism, vernacular, accessible, Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) - Given sainthood in 1935 - Believed in duty of citzens to participate in public affairs - Became member of clergy but instead chose to pursue law - Emphasized notion of active public service -

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