Shinto 2 as in many places in the far east from

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Shinto 2 As in many places in the Far East, from ancient times women served as mediums for communication with these spirits. Women shamans, called “Miko” in Japan, practiced focus medicine, divination, communication with the spirits, and exorcisms. Sociologists of religion have identified this as one of the many ways in which marginalized and oppressed groups— women, minorities, the poor—exercised power and influence in the religious realm because they were barred from such power and influence elsewhere in society.
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World Religions Notes Shinto also has a set of myths to answer ultimate questions, such as the origin of the world and of humanity. In one myth, Japan was created by a god who dipped his spear in mud, and the mud that dripped from the end of the spear formed the Japanese islands. REL 223 Module 5 AVP Script Taoism Slide 1 Welcome to our presentation on Taoism. Slide 2 Slide title: The Emergence of Taoism Slide content: Text:  Critique of Confucianism  Society is Corrupt  Return to Unadulterated Nature Image: cave painting of Asian warriors Narrator: Taoism emerged as a diverse movement during China’s Warring States Period (475 BC – 221 BC). The movement agreed that the current chaos was due to the values Confucianism was promoting. They all saw the Tao, not as the ethical, social, and political ways of ancient Chinese civilization, but rather as the way of nature; unadulterated by human customs, societal structures, and values. For the Taoists, Confucianism was the problem, not the solution. Slide 3 Slide title: Schools of Taoism Slide content: Text:  Diverse movement with fundamental similarities but different emphases Difficulty in identifying distinct “schools” of Taoism Image: ancient Chinese coins with kanji symbols Narrator: All Taoists drew upon older Chinese religion and advocated a return to the Tao as the way of nature, not of social convention. They differed, though, in their beliefs about what the Tao is and how to live in harmony with it. The schools of Taoism exemplify the problem of drawing clear boundaries between religious traditions. They differed in in their beliefs (Creed), ethics (Code), practices (Cult) and institutional structures, or lack
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World Religions Notes thereof (Community). With caution, Religious Studies scholars identify three somewhat distinct schools of Taoism, with fundamental similarities but different emphases. Slide 4 Slide title: Hedonistic Taoism: Rejecting Social Conventions Slide content: No text Image: lit candles and incense in a Chinese temple Narrator: We saw how troubled times in ancient China led some to leave society and seek truth and happiness in the forests. During the Warring States Period, some in China took a similar track. The earliest Taoists saw society as hopelessly lost. Society involves burdensome obligations to family and others. These, in turn, cause pain and suffering for the individual. Confucian duties and social protocols added fuel to the fire. The first Taoists wanted to return to nature, and so abandoned society, living as hermits in the woods. In these ways they bear similarities to eighteenth-century European Romanticism
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