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Afferents connect to layer iv coming from the

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Afferents connect to layer IV (coming from the thalamus) as well as to layers II and III.Efferents in layers V and VI connect to other parts of the cortex and to motor structures of the brain.Cytoarchitectonic Map• Brodmann defined areas by organization and characteristics of the cells. • The simplest sensoryperceptions of touch (red), vision (purple), and hearing (orange).The Basal Ganglia • Collection of nuclei just below the white matter of the neocortex • 3 principalstructures: caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus • Controls voluntary and involuntarymovement • Related disorders • Parkinson disease and Tourette syndromeThe Limbic System • Principal structures: amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex • Regulate: •Emotional and sexual behaviors • Memory • Spatial navigationThe Olfactory System • the olfactory bulbs lies at front of brain - responsible for sense of smell. •Principal structures: pyriform cortex, amygdala, dorsomedial thalamusSpinal Nerves• Dermatome • Area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal cord dorsal root• Spinal cord segments are interconnected, so adjacent segments can operate together to directcomplex coordinated movements.Spinal Nerves: Somatic Nervous System Connections• Dorsal fibers (afferent): carry information from the body’s sensory receptors• Ventral fibers (efferent): carry information from the spinal cord to the muscles• This is known as Law of Bell and MagendieEnteric Nervous Systems (ENS) – controls the gut• Neurons in gastrointestinal tract • Bowel motility, secretion, and blood flow to permit fluid andnutrient absorption and to support waste elimination. • Microbiome - gut bacteria that regulates gut
Includes chapters 1,2,3,4,5, 6,7,11, 12, 13 and 14. Lectures 1-9, all chapter summarieshealth • The brain and ENS connect through the ANS via the vagus nerve. • Play a role in manybehavioral disorders • Stress/anxiety modify gut function, leading to such symptoms as nausea anddiarrhea. • psychobiotics: live microorganisms used to treat behavioral disorders • Trigger researchon gut-brain-microbiome interactionTen Principles of nervous system function1 . The nervous system produces movement within a perceptual world the brain constructs.2. Neuroplasticity is the hallmark of nervous system functioning.3. Many brain circuits are crossed.4. The CNS functions on multiple levels5. The brain is symmetrical and asymmetrical.6. Brain systems are organizedhierarchically and in parallel.7. Sensory and motor divisions permeate the nervous system.8. The brain divides sensory input for object recognition and motor control.9. Brain functions are localized and distributed.10. The nervous system works by juxtaposing excitation (increased neural activity) and inhibition(decreased neural activity).

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