Age 6 the brain is 95 of adult size Thickening of synaptic connections Prenatal

Age 6 the brain is 95 of adult size thickening of

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Age 6, the brain is 95% of adult size - Thickening of synaptic connections - Prenatal - 18 mons - Beginning of puberty - Thickening is known as overproduction or exuberance - Synaptic pruning → overproduction of synapses is whittled down - Myelination → myelin sheath (blanket of fat) over the main part of the neuron is created - Cerebellum → grows and contributes to higher functions Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory - Cultural psychology - Cognitive development is social and cultural - Social → children learn through interactions - Cultural → rules and practices - Zone of proximal development (learner can do with guidance) Building on Vygotsky’s Legacy - Guided participation - Teaching interaction between two people as they participate in culturally valued activity - Offered by cultural and social values, as well as social partners Lecture 5 January 18, 2018 Cultural Beliefs What is culture? - Shared norms, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours, role definitions Cultural Beliefs - Symbolic inheritance (beliefs and ideas, religious, political, familial, and communal → norms and moral standards Cultural Beliefs in Adolescence - Form the basis of socialization - Abstract thinking - Changing expectations around roles and responsibilities Socialization - How people acquire the behaviours and beliefs of their culture - Socialization outcomes 1) Self regulation 2) Role preparation 3) Sources of meaning
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Cultural Values - Individualism → independence, self expression, independent self, broad socialization - Collectivism → interdependence, conformity, interdependent self, narrow socialization - Important not to assume everyone within a particular culture will necessarily fit into these categories - Intersectionality → the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage. Individualism and Collectivism - Not ‘pure’ types - Differences between individuals - Diversity within individuals Socialization: broad and narrow - Process and adopting values - Range of acceptable personal variation - Degree of restrictiveness Sources of socialization - Influence of friends, media, school, community, legal system increases in adolescence - Influence of family decreases in adolescence Socialization of cultural beliefs - Adolescent socialization among the australian aborigines - The law - Self regulation → rules for sexual conduct - Roles → expectations for adult male behaviour - Source of meaning → origin of the world, place in community Custom Complex - Typical practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs that provide the basis for the practice - Not ontogenetic → universal and driven by innate processes Multiculturalism in canada - 200 different ethnic origins - 4.3% aboriginal - 40% are 1st or 2nd gen - 34% youth - 19.1% visible minorities Socialization of Minority Youth - Belief systems vary across sources - Acculturation → changes that individuals and groups undergo as they come in contact with another culture
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  • Winter '16
  • Jenny Glozman

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