He had the control over the Smithsonian They were able to get 600 pounds of the ground initially. They were trying to do with thelightest material Video 2bThe structure of DNA– Watson and Crick, but it turns out they didn’t discover DNA-Frederich Miescher (1869): He discovered DNA in the nuclei of WBC in pus. He tried todetermine the nature and structure. His mentor didn’t think that his research was worthpublishing so he did not publish. Eventually his paper was published but did not make alot of impact.-Back in the days, individuals who do research, one professor dominated, and the paperswere always at his name. -Oswald Avery (1877-1955): In 1944 made the next major step to isolate and determinethe function of DNA. Demonstrated it had replication capacities.The nature of scientific research -Simultaneous discovery happens Linus Pauling early 1940s he published a proposed structure of DNA, but he wasn’t correct.Watson and crick they find out the structure for DNA (very young men). They were working in obscurity.-Credit/patent issuesRosalind Franklin did not get credit because she was not alive Maurice Wilkins was working with Rosalind Franklin.Who gets the credit?? Watson and Crick and Maurice Wilkins (Nobel Prize). Most people feel it should be Rosalin Franklin-Ego Issueswomen often don’t get the creditVideo 3Journals-The first peer reviewed journals : in 1843the Journal of the Chemical Society in UK.The articles were sent out to evaluation. Moconic acid, substance of opium was ofinterest for them10
-Types of publication 1.Journals 2.Books (summary of journals)3.Reviews 4.Full papers (paper with all the details)5.Notes6.Communications (Watson and crick published) articles with the basic info. Shortpaper reviewed and published quickly.Video 4aSteps for academic research-You find an idea and you write it down-Ask for a grant to pay for the research-After 6months to 1 year = A grant is secured Time passes Finally a result Time to publish-Peer review (detail of the process)The researcher (you) The editor = excellent researcher and good judgement (editor of the journal)Referee (multiple) usually 2 decide whether it should be published. Makes a judgement based on the writing. Ego issues because the referee may be a competitor to the researcher. SendResearcher Editor (selects papers based on the subject) RefereeThe researcher does not know the identity of the referee, but the referee does.Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-1981) = the Krebs cycle-He was initially rejected, but later on, he got published Communications (personal experience of the prof)-To give added comments is an added generosity11Primary literatureSends back to the editor with changes to be made if he believes the research is salvageableThe editor sends back to the researcher so that hecan make the changes. The editor makes the finaldecision. Researcher to editor and editor to researcher will happen multiple times.
Video 4bNames on publications-One of the most complex in publishing -