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or why.People may not want to respond to unknown interviews or about things they consider private.The person may answer the survey questions even they do not know the answer in order to appear smarter or more informed. Sometimes they want to help the interviewer by giving pleasing answers.Observation is best suited for exploratory research, and surveys for descriptive research. Experimental is best suited for casual informationExperimental Research: Gathering primary data by selecting matched groupsof subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related factors, and checking for differences in group responses. Experimental research tries to explain cause-and-effect relationships.Ex: before adding a new sandwich to the Menu MacDonald’s might use experiments to test the effects. Introduce one price of the sandwich in one city and another price in another city.CONTACT METHODS:Information can be collected by mail, telephone, personal interview, or online.Mail questionnairescan be used to collect large amount of information at a low cost. Respondents (people) may give more honest answers to more personal questions on a mail questionnaire than to an unknown interviewer in person or over the phone.Problem with mail: not very flexible [all respondents answer the same questions in a fixed order. Mail surveys take longer to complete, and the response rate (number of people returning completed questionnaires) is verylow.Telephone interviewingis one of the best methods for gathering information quickly and provides greater flexibility than mail.Interviewers can explain the difficult questions depending on the answer the received, or skip some questions. Respondent’s rates are higher than mail.
However telephone interviewing, the cost per respondent is higher than mail.Also people may not want to discuss personal questions with the interviewer.This method introduces interviewer bias (the way the interviewer talk and ask questions, affects the answers. Different interviewers use different ways, and sometimes under time pressure, and interviewer may cheat by recoding answers without asking questions.Personal Interviewingtakes two forms: individual and group interviewing.Individual interviewing involves talking with people in their homes or offices,on the street, or shopping malls. Such interviewing is flexible.Trained interviewers can guide the interview and explain difficult questions, explore the issues. They can show actual products, advertisements, or packages and observe behavior.However, individual interviews may cost three or four times as much as the telephone interviews.Group interviewing consist of inviting six to ten people with a trained moderator to talk about a product, service or organization. Participants normally are paid a small sum for attending.