According to Williams, in-service training programmes should be looked upon as a supplement to, rather than as a substitute for the formal study programme. Professional staff should be willing to make some sacrifices, financial and otherwise, to take advantage of the opportunities thus offered them. In-service training is an important feature of the many and varied activities of the Ministries of Agriculture of the States of Nigeria. It is organized for junior, intermediate and senior staff. For junior and intermediate staff, it is administered by divisional agricultural agents as the need arises. For agricultural agents, supervisors and administrators, it is organized in two ways. First, under the ministries’ in-service training scheme for higher degrees, officers are given an opportunity to undergo further training leading to the M.Sc. and the Ph.D. degrees. This offer is generally made only when the agents have had at least one or two years of practical field experience after graduation. Second, some ministries periodically organize ad hoc training programmes for all senior extension agents in specialized areas of agricultural technology, extension principles and methodology. Another general feature is that extension officers are given the opportunity to attend international conferences. This practice has yielded good dividends. Not only do those attending profit themselves by their experience, they also bring back new ideas which can stimulate and improve the whole organization with which they are connected. Yet another form of in-service training exists in the opportunities for staff to attend refresher courses of perhaps a month or so. Such courses are offered on the campuses of agricultural institutions, which concentrate intensively upon one single subject. Some such courses are now being organized by local or international research institutes: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) at Ibadan; Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) near Ibadan; Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) at Benin.
45 3.3 On-the-Job-Training This method is used for teaching specific skills at a specific level .A good example is that of the Field Overseers (FO) who work with the farmer at the village level. This staff cadre has had only about six years of elementary education; but it was necessary to hire them because skilled and trained agriculture assistance are not be produce in sufficient number to meet the need of the ministries. The cadre is gradually being phased out as better trained man and woman become available. Some of the Field Overseers, however, have proved effective in extension work, and so they are sent to school of agriculture assistance; most have greatly profited from the opportunity.
46 4.0 Conclusion In this unit, we have learned about the major types of Extension Training.
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