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7. Prerenal injury from poor perfusion can result from which conditions? (Select all that apply.) a. Bilateral ureteral obstructionb. Renal vasoconstrictionc. Renal artery thrombosisd. Hemorrhagee. HypotensionANS: B, C, D, E Poor perfusion can result from renal artery thrombosis, hypotension related to hypovolemia (dehydration, diarrhea, fluid shifts) or hemorrhage, renal vasoconstriction and alterations in renal regional blood flow, microthrombi, or kidney edema that restricts arterial blood flow. Bilateral ureteral obstruction is associated with postrenal injuries.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
401 Test Bank - Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (8th) Chapter 40: Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children MULTIPLE CHOICE1. The functional kidney is associated with which embryonic organ? The functional kidney is associated with the metanephros. The kidney develops from three sets of structures: the pronephros (nonfunctional by the end of the embryonic period), mesonephros (nonfunctional), and metanephros (the functional kidney). Endonephros is not relevant to this process.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering2. When does urine formation and excretion begin? Urine formation and excretion begin by the third month of gestation.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering3. Compared with an adult, an infant has a greater content of extracellular fluid, as well as a greater rate of fluid exchange. What effect does this have on the fluid balance of a child compared with that of an adult? An infant not only has a greater content of extracellular fluid but also has a greater rate of fluid exchange. The adult takes in and excretes approximately 2000 ml of water daily, representing 5% of the total body fluid and 14% of the extracellular fluid. In contrast, the infant’s daily exchange of 600 to 700 ml of water represents 290% of the total body fluid or nearly 50% of the extracellular volume, making control of dehydration and overhydration more difficult.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
402 Test Bank - Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (8th)