Headings are an important feature of professional technical writing: they alert readers to
upcoming topics and subtopics, help readers find their way around in long reports and
skip what they are not interested in, and break up long stretches of straight text.
Headings are also useful for writers. They keep you organized and focused on the topic.
When you begin using headings, your impulse may be to slap in the headings
you've written the rough draft. Instead, visualize the headings
you start the rough
draft, and plug them in as you write.
is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration, an
official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles
may even be inserted between a first and last name (for example,
Cardinal in Catholic usage or clerical titles such as Archbishop or Ter in the Armenian
Apostolic Church). Some titles are hereditary.
You write a solicited letter of inquiry when a business or agency advertises
its products or services. For example, if a software manufacturer advertises some new
package it has developed and you can't inspect it locally, write a solicited letter to that
manufacturer asking specific questions.
Your letter of inquiry is unsolicited if the recipient has done nothing to
prompt your inquiry. For example, if you read an article by an expert, you may have
further questions or want more information.
Functional vs Causal Analysis –
Functional analysis is the branch of mathematics, and specifically of analysis, concerned
with the study of vector spaces and operators acting upon them
The search for the cause or causes of particular events and objects. A
variable which causes change in another variable.
Active vs Passive voice –
In an active sentence, the subject is doing the action. A very straightforward example
is the sentence "Steve loves Amy." Steve is the subject, and he is doing the action:
he loves Amy, the object. Another example is the title of the Marvin Gaye song
Heard It through the Grapevine
. I is the subject, the one who is doing the action. I is
hearing it, the object of the sentence.
In passive voice the target of the action gets promoted to the subject position.
Instead of saying, "Steve loves Amy," I would say, "Amy is loved by Steve." The
subject of the sentence becomes Amy, but she isn't doing anything. Rather, she is
just the recipient of Steve's love. The focus of the sentence has changed from Steve
to Amy. If you wanted to make the title of the Marvin Gaye song passive, you would
It Was Heard by Me through the Grapevine
, not such a catchy title anymore.
A lot of people think that all sentences that contain a form of the verb
passive voice, but that isn't true. For example, the sentence "I am holding a pen" is in
active voice, but it uses the verb
, which is a form of
. The passive form of
that sentence is "The pen is being held by me."
Another important point is that passive sentences aren't incorrect; it’s just that they
often aren't the best way to phrase your thoughts. Sometimes passive voice is
awkward and other times it’s vague.