Middle oropharynx posterior to the oral cavity

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Middle oropharynx, posterior to the oral cavity. Inferior laryngopharynx, which is posterior to the hyoid bone and glottis. 10- list the cartilages of the larynx. What are the functions of each?
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Thyroid cartilage forms the anterior wall of the larynx. Cricoid cartilage protects the glottis and the entrance to the trachea. Epiglottis forms a lid over the glottis Arytenoid cartilages and the comiculate cartilages are involved in the formation of sound. Cuneiform cartilages are found in the folds of the larynx. 11- The steps of external respiration are: a) pulmonary ventilation (breathing), b) gas diffusion across the respiratory membrane and between blood and interstitial fluids c) the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar and peripheral capillaries. 12- What important physiological differences exist between fetal hemoglobin and maternal hemoglobin? Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin. Thus, it binds more of the oxygen that is present, enabling it to "steal' oxygen from the maternal hemoglobin. 13-. By what three ways is carbon dioxide transported in the bloodstream? Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as carbonic acid, bound to hemoglobin, and dissolved in the plasma. 14- Which of the following does not occur in internal respiration? Hemoglobin binds more oxygen (c) 15- Gas exchange at the respiratory membrane is efficient because the differences in partial pressure are substantial, the gases are lipid soluble, the total surface area is large (d) 16- For any partial pressure of oxygen, if the concentration of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) increases the amount of oxygen released by hemoglobin will increase (c) 17- An increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood causes chemoreceptors to stimulate the respiratory centers, resulting in an increased respiratory rate. (b) 18. Why is breathing through the nasal cavity more desirable than breath-ing through the mouth?
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