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Thus women earn less than men and a greater

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Thus, women earn less than men and a greater percentage of the poor are women.Women also are more likely to have major child-rearing and other domestic responsi-bilities than men, often in addition to their work in paid employment. For people whoare transgender or of mixed or indeterminate gender, there are fewer available socialroles, less social and cultural mirroring and support, and they face employment dis-crimination and social targeting.The socioeconomic consequences of sexism are similar to those of racism in someways: limited economic opportunities, stereotypes connected to alleged biological dif-ferences, and restricted access to positions of power and influence. Women of all racesand men and women of color have had to struggle for rights, opportunities, and thestatus of full citizenship. Repressive institutions, such as slavery, relied on an interac-tion of racism and sexism to create socially stratified roles and positions. As a result ofdiscrimination and oppression, people of color, women, and people who are transgen-der, mixed, or of indeterminate gender have endured diminished economic, political,and social status (Reid & Comas-Diaz, 1990).Research seems to indicate that both sexism and racism operate as independentforces and are additive (Stevens-Watkins et al., 2014). A woman of color is disadvantagedMiller, J. M. P., & Garran, A. M. M. P. (2017). Racism in the united states : Implications for the helping professions. Springer Publishing Company.Created from kentucky-ebooks on 2022-01-19 04:51:35.Copyright © 2017. Springer Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
7 Intersectionality: Racism and Other Forms of Social Oppression183twice—by race and by gender (Cotter, Hermsen, & Vanneman, 1999; Hardy &Hazelrigg, 1995). But there are differences between sexism and racism. Historically, inthe United States, women have endured oppression and unequal treatment but werenot targeted for extermination or slavery as a result of their gender. Today, women out-number men as students in higher education while African Americans, NativeAmericans, and Hispanics are underrepresented. Women form the majority of the pop-ulation while people of color still constitute a minority. And White women, despiteexperiencing sexism, as a group, have greater economic success than men and womenof color (Elmelech & Lu, 2004).Wilkinson (1995) has stated “whenever race is part of the mosaic, it outweighs allpotential influences” (p. 175). In her view, racism is the prime reason for discrepanciesin the lives of individuals and groups, particularly as it fosters segregation, which isfoundational to social discrimination and inequality. The salience of racism for womenof color over other forms of social oppression, including gender-based oppression, hasbeen confirmed by other researchers (e.g., Remedios et al., 2011; Steven-Watkinset al., 2014).

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