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the essential components of a job in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. To defend employment practice or policy on the grounds that the policy or practice may be perceived as discriminatory, the employer must show that the practice or policy was adopted in an honest and good-faith belief that it was reasonably necessary to ensure the efficient and economical performance of the job without endangering employees or the general public. BFoRs are sometimes referred to as bona fide occupational qualifications (BFoqs).Accommodation: Refers to the duty of an employer to put in place modifications to discriminatory employment practices or procedures to meet the needs of members of a protected group being affected by the employment practice or procedure. As part of a BFoR defence, an employer must demonstrate that such accommodation is impossible to achieve without incurring undue hardship in terms of the organization’s expense or operations.Sufficient risk: As part of a BFoR defence, an employer may argue that an occupational requirement that discriminates against a protected group is reasonably necessary to ensure that work will be performed successfully and in a manner that will not pose harm or danger to employees or the public.Undue hardship: The limit beyond which employers and service providers are not expected to accommodate a member of a protected group. undue hardship usually occurs when an employer cannot bear the costs of the accommodation.Adverse effect discrimination: refers to a situation where an employer, in good faith, adopts a policy or practice that has unintended, negative impact on members of a protected group.Outreach recruiting: a recruitment practice where the employing organization makes a determined and persistent effort to make potential job applicants, including designated group members, aware of available positions within the employing organization.Chapter 4: Job Analysis and Competency ModelsJob description: a written description of what job occupants are required to do, how they are supposed to do it, and the rationale for any required job procedures.Job specification: the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes or competencies that are needed by a job incumbent to performwell on the job.
Job: a collection of positions that are similar in their significant dutiesPosition: a collection of duties assigned to individuals in an organization at a given timeJob family: a set of different, but related, jobs that rely on the same set of KSAOsSubject-matter experts (SMEs): people who are most knowledgeable about a job and how it is currently performed; generally job incumbents and their supervisors.Work-oriented job analysis: job analysis techniques that emphasize work outcomes and descriptions of the various tasks performed to accomplish those outcomes.Worker-oriented job analysis: job analysis techniques that emphasize general aspects of jobs, describing perceptual, interpersonal, sensory, cognitive, and physical activities.Task statement: a discrete sentence containing one action verb that concisely describes a single observable activity performed by a job incumbentTask inventories: work-oriented surveys that break down jobs into their component tasks.Worker traits inventories: methods used to infer employee specifications from job analysis dataCompetencies: groups of related behaviours or attributes that are needed for successful job performance in an organizationCompetency model: A collection of competencies that are relevant to performance in a particular job, job family, or functional area.