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(Steckel, 1995; Appleton and Song, 1999; Smith 1999) to support the argument that child labour potentially affects child health positively. 17.In conditions of extreme poverty, this is a plausible and persuasive argument. However, several caveats are warranted. First, any positive effect of child labour on health through living standards must be offset against the deleterious effect of occupational health hazards. A child, and its family, might enjoy a few years of fruitful work before suffering an accident and the subsequent loss of both livelihood and health. This potential risk implies a difficulty for empirical work. Contemporaneous correlations between children’s work and their health may reveal 9This does not require that the household be income maximising, it can hold even with inequality aversion (Pitt et al, 1990).
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